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Breeding Performance and Nest Characterizations of Red Vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) in Bajaur Valley, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Breeding Performance and Nest Characterizations of Red Vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) in Bajaur Valley, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Rahmat Ullah Khan1*, Karim Gabol1, Asif Sadam2, Waheed Ali Panhwar3, Hamidullah4 and Abdul Rahim1

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 Pakistan
2College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou-571158 China
3Department of Zoology, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan
4Department of Zoology, The Islamia University Bahwalapur Campus, Bahwalapur, Pakistan
* Corresponding author:


Red vented bulbul Pycnonotus cafer is a common passerine and eternal breeder of Pakistan. However, this bird is locally found abundantly in Bajaur valley, but the basic data on its status and breeding performance have not been collected. To stipulate all the associated data about its breeding and nest characterizations, complete research was carried out in the cultivated areas of Bajaur valley during 2020. The breeding season starts from mid-April and lasts until July. Nests were explored orderly in all the probable sites with help of the landowners. Overall, 52 nests were found mainly built on five different types of vegetation at an average height of 2.87±1.3 m above the ground. The shape of the nest was round to oblong, in the center or on the branch fork of plants. The nests were mainly constructed using local dry grasses (48%) followed by crop leaves (35%), plastic string (10%), and unidentified materials (7%). The average outer diameter of the nest 12.00±1.1 cm, inner diameter 9.13±2.3 cm and inner cup depth was 4.99±2.1 cm. This bird has one brood per season. Overall breeding cycle lasted for 90 days. The shape of the eggs was oblong and white pinkish, with darker red spots. The average incubation and nestling periods were 12.03±1.3 and 13.21±1.08 days respectively. The average clutch size was 2.66±0.5 eggs; brood size was 2.66±0.5 nestlings. The average number of young fledged was 2.66±0.98 young, fledging success was 94.2%, and overall breeding success was 62.2%. Results suggest that agricultural trees, especially thorny plants, represent an attractive habitat for bulbul. Factors such as avian predation, nest destruction, heavy storm, nest failure, and the presence of potential predators are affecting the breeding success of red-vented bulbul in the area.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 55, Iss. 3, Pages 1003-1500


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