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Factors Influencing Vulnerability Towards Heroin Addiction in a Pakistani Cohort

Factors Influencing Vulnerability Towards Heroin Addiction in a Pakistani Cohort

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

1Department of Biochemistry, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2Department of Medicine, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad, Pakistan

3National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan

* Corresponding author: 




Addiction to opioids including other illicit drugs is a chronic, relapsing multifactorial disorder of brain and, if left untreated, major medical, social, and economic problems arise. Drug addiction is among major health issues faced by the World including Pakistan with an alarming annual increase in heroin addicts. The study was designed to identify the socio-demographic risk factors contributing to increasing susceptibility to heroin addiction in Pakistani populations. In this epidemiological study subjects were interviewed through a comprehensive questionnaire consisting of open and closed-ended questions. Data regarding key factors such as age and ethnicity, communal domain, education level, employment status and demographic factors (drug route, drug dose) have bearing upon heroin addiction was collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Early age of addiction onset, low literacy rate, peer pressure, occupation type, and stress are among risk factors increasing susceptibility towards heroin addiction in our studied cohort. Drug abuse initiated at an early age seems to trigger transition to heroin addiction under the influence of environmental risk factors.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 55, Iss. 3, Pages 1003-1500


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