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Staphylococcus aureus: A Review of Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms

Staphylococcus aureus: A Review of Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms

Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus1*, Olabode Mayowa Peter2, Muhammad Adamu Abbas3 and Mohammed Dauda Goni

1Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 Thailand; 2Bacterial Research Department, National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) Vom, Nigeria; 3Department of Human Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria; 4Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan Malaysia. 


The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus posed a major veterinary and public challenge worldwide. S. aureus being a highly versatile pathogen can quickly acquire resistance genes. The development of resistance in bacteria predates the era of antibiotic use. However, resistance developments in S. aureus have been reported since the early 1940-ties, when penicillin resistant S. aureus was first reported. Ever since, this pathogen has gain global notoriety as the most common cause of nosocomial, community and livestock associated infection. The mechanism of resistance development in bacteria involved the integration of a complex systems that included the efflux pump, alteration of drug target site, enzymatic inactivation and, mutation in drug target site and gene acquisition of resistance determinants through horizontal gene transfer. This review focused on the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus. Understanding the concept of resistance development and transfer will immensely help in curtailing the global rise in antimicrobial resistance in bacteria.  


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Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews


Vol. 8, Iss. 1, Pages 1-70


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