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Tomato Yield Losses Due to Attack of Insects/Pests in Pakkhal Valley of District Mansehra Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Tomato Yield Losses Due to Attack of Insects/Pests in Pakkhal Valley of District Mansehra Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Ahmad Abrar Khan1*, Ghulam Qadar1, Asif Ali Abro2 and Muhammad Awais3

1Department of Agricultural Extension Education and Communication, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan; 2Department of Business Administration, Newports Institute of Communications and Economics, Karachi, Pakistan; 3State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, P. R. China.

 
*Correspondence | Ahmad Abrar Khan, Department of Agricultural Extension Education and Communication, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan; Email: abrarswati46@gmail.com 

ABSTRACT

The research study was carried out with the aims to find tomato insects/pests responsible for yield losses in Pakkhal valley of district Mansehra. Data were collected from tomato growers by using an interview schedule in the union council Baffa of the study area. The results of the study focused that maximum land under tomato cultivation was found 8.75 and minimum 0.25 acres with a major group (35.4%) of tomato growers cultivating on 2.5 acre and below size of land. Chemical fertilizers were applied by all the respondents while one-third applied natural fertilizer along with chemical fertilizers. Regarding irrigation majority (89.2%) was blessed with canals while 10.8% were rain water dependent. Two-third of the total cases relied on chemical method for insects/pests control while one-third on chemical and physical both. The highest yield recorded was above 16000 Kg/acre achieved by only less than a quarter (23.1%), while collectively above fifty percent (53.9%), tomato growers were incompetent to achieve per acre yield of 12000 Kg. Majority (81.5%) tomato growers faced aphids attack while more than 50% reported whitefly, Cutworm, mites and Armyworm. Leaf miner, thrips and fruit fly were reported by less than 50% of the total respondents. The result of regression analysis revealed that attack of insects/pests i.e. aphids, armyworm, mites, thrips and fruit fly were found non-significant while cutworm, whitefly and leaf miner have significant negative effects on per acre yield of tomato. Inappropriate and cultural practices, high dependency on agrovet dealers and fellow farmers were the key factors of yield losses. It is recommended to spray on the proper time along with follow-ups and physical control techniques. Selection of right time, control methods, appropriate insecticides/pesticides along-with recommended dose and treatments must be defined by the recommendations of agriculture experts instead of fellow farmers and agrovet sellers. Trainings, workshops and field activities should be organized regarding improved farm management practices especially on the aspect of insects/pests management to minimize the yield losses. 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

April

Vol. 55, Iss. 2, Pages 501-1002

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