The foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak has again infected hundreds of thousands of livestock in Indonesia after being declared FMD-free for 32 years since 1990. As of November 18, 2022, FMD is still spreading in 17 provinces in 146 regencies/cities with the the number of infected cows 578.060 heads, recovered 508.494 heads, conditionally cut 13.177 heads, died 10.269 heads, and vaccinated 5.847.113 heads. This article is carried out using literature study and secondary data exploration methods. There are three factors that can be attributed to the re-emergence of FMD outbreaks in Indonesia. First, the loss of the principle of maximum security. Indonesia’s success in freeing itself from FMD after 100 years is thanks to the implementation of maximum security policy by enacting a country-based system, which is to only import livestock and livestock products into the country from FMD-free countries. Second, the share of imports of boneless frozen beef/buffalo meat originating from India continued to increase from 33.8% in 2016 to 51.9% in 2020. Third, economic bioterrorism, an act of terror using biological agents that infects Indonesia’s cattle farming agribusiness. FMD outbreaks have a negative impact on cattle agribusiness from upstream to downstream: (1) the cattle population will shrink, (2) imports of cattle and beef will increase, (3) beef consumption will decrease, (4) economic losses are very large. FMD also poses a heavy social impact for farmers such as illness, stress, depression, stroke, divorce, and even suicide.
Keywords | Airborne disease, Cattle agribusiness, Economic bioterrorism, Economic losses, Foot and mouth disease