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Susceptibility of Adult Engorged Ticks, Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) to a Native Heterorhabditid Isolate (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) in Colima, Mexico

Susceptibility of Adult Engorged Ticks, Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) to a Native Heterorhabditid Isolate (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) in Colima, Mexico

Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6

1Universidad de Colima-Coordinación General de Investigación Científica-Centro Universitario de Investigación y Desarrollo Agropecuario, Km. 40 autopista        Colima-Manzanillo, Tecomán, Colima 28930, México
2Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad de Colima, Tecomán, Colima 28930, México
3Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Colima, Tecomán, Colima 28930, México
4Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Knipling, Kerrville, TX 78028, USA
5Deartment of Entomology, University of Sargodha, University Road, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
6Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0816, USA

*     Corresponding author:;



A survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) belonging to the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae was conducted in the municipality of Tecomán, Colima, Mexico in an effort to obtain alternative controls for cattle ticks. Soil cores from grasslands were baited with last instars of the great wax moth (GWM), Galleria mellonella L., and an EPN isolate was obtained, it belonged to the genus Heterorhabditis and identified as JMO71. The nematodes were cultivated in GWM larvae, and the emerging infective juveniles (IJs) were collected from White traps, and pooled in canted neck vented plastic flasks. The susceptibility of an important livestock arthropod, the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus Canestrinito JMO71 was determined. Ticks were manually collected from cross-bred beef cattle, and then the heterorhabditid nematodes assayed against these ticks using the Petri dish assay. Concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 IJs were applied in 1 mL of sterile distilled water dispensed on the surface of a couple of moistened filter papers. For each treatment concentration, 10 adult engorged ticks were placed in the Petri dishes, and each treatment was replicated four times; the experiment was replicated two times. Tick mortality was recorded daily for 9 days. Our EPNs were able to parasitize engorged ticks, and tick mortality ranged between 70-100% after 9-d post-exposure. The faster and higher tick mortality was obtained with the concentration of 2000 IJs causing 100% mortality after 3 days post-exposure. This is the first report of a native Mexican heterorhabditid nematode causing cattle tick mortality.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 54, Iss. 5, Pages 2003-2500


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