Muhangi Denis

...ely impacts on the socio-economic status of farmers. The disease is endemic in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, in Sardinia (Italy), the Russian Federations, the Caucasus and it has shown possibilities of spread within Eastern Europe. Involvement of all stakeholders in the pig value chain in designing and implementing of prevention and control strategies could be explored in future control programs. This may call for investing resources in changing...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...uently and caused severe economic losses to the poultry industries. H9N2 AIVs can evade the pressure of vaccination by genetic evolution and antigen variation. Moreover, the ratio of L226 in the haemagglutin (HA) receptor binding site has increased, which indicates that the H9N2 virus has the increasing potential to infection and cause human epidemics. The threat to the poultry industry and public health should not be ignored. In this review, we summarised the...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...tits ruminants (PPR), an economically important morbillivirus infection of sheep and goats, is widely distributed in Middle East, Central and South Asia, China and Africa. Whereas PPR antibodies were first reported in Kenyan small stock as early as 1995, the clinical disease was observed later in 2006 following dramatic and devastating PPR outbreaks in Turkana County. In this context, an outbreak of PPRV was observed in Tukana County in 2011 and the current st...

Khalid Usman, Aziz-Ur-Rehman

...3 is more productive and economical strategy for wheat production following cotton. It is concluded that wheat seeded in zero tillage following cotton did not decrease stand or yield compared to conventional tillage and wheat grain yield and N agronomic efficiency increased with application of 150 kg N ha-1 in three equal splits viz. at sowing, first irrigation, and second irrigation.

...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

... It was deduced from the economic variable that the level of input used was less than optimum. The negative coefficient of the location variables revealed that increasing the area virtually decreased the yield. It was concluded from location variables that vertical expansion was solution of Pakistan’s growing food security needs. Based on the results of the economic variables it is recommended that the optimal input us...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...oduction and quality and economic return of fodder maize cultivar Kissan. The experiment was conducted on silt loam soil at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan during 2011. Six nitrogen treatments (80, 120, 160, 200, 240 and 280 kg ha-1) and a control one were studied in this trial. Growth and yield traits and quality such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf area plant-1, leaf area index, chlorophyll content, green fodder yiel...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...ing twice was found less economical due to higher costs of labour. Hence, it can be inferred from the above results that Dual Gold dose can be reduced up to 50% in combination with sorghum or sunflower water extracts for effective and environment friendly weed management and enhancing cotton yield.

...

Seyed Mohsen Mirbod

...is which is easy to use, economical and effective. A new knee orthosis was designed to improve the performance of OA patients during standing and walking. Two subjects with knee osteoarthritis recruited in this research study. The gait performance of the subjects and their stability to stand was evaluated by the use of motion analysis system and a force plate (Kistler). The mediolateral excursion of the knee joint decreased while walking with the knee ort...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...on physiology, yield and economic returns of Canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Bulbul-98). The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications. Findings of the experiment revealed that guar as previously green manuring crop considerably increased leaf area index (LAI) 4.4, crop growth rate (CGR) 5.7 g m-2 d-1, seed yield (2329 kg ha-1) and harvest index (22.10%). Incorporation of whole plant had s...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...ms. Information on socio-economic activities of the rice farmers, level of rice yield, agricultural practices for rice production and farm management techniques employed in the study area were observed. The study employed simple percentages to analyse the farmers’ responses; while regression model established significant relationships between rice yield and farm management methods adopted in this area. Results were presented using charts and tables. The ...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...ease and one of the most economically devastating diseases that affect cloven-hoofed livestock including cattle, goats, sheep, pigs and wild ungulates. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic losses to livestock farming and industry has increased global concern for the disease. Currently, 3 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A and SAT-2) and 06 lineage are circul...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...ants virus causes an economically important disease of small ruminants that causes extensive livestock losses across areas where it is endemic. Further the recent description of the disease in naïve populations of animals have demonstrated an expansion of the distribution of the disease. Having been in the shadow of rinderpest virus for decades little is understood regarding factors that influence the outcome of infection with both viral and host gene...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...ntagious, notifiable and economically important transboundary viral disease of sheep and goats. PPR is enzootic in India as more number of outbreaks have occurred in the past and now occurring regularly, round the year and most frequently during the lean period throughout the country. In some Indian states viz. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Chhattisgar h the PPR outbreaks in sheep and goats have declined after implementing the strategic mass vaccination progr...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...i>virus (PPRV) causes an economically important plague of sheep and goats that serves as a major constraint in the development of the small ruminant’s production within an infected area. The virus is endemic across much of the developing world and has spread into the developed European borders. The small ruminants industry within an infected state or region is often disproportionately affected with its attending impact on poverty in what are already the ...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

...een made to estimate the economic losses based on the annual incidence, morbidity, mortality levels etc. derived from literature, discussion with experts, and based upon scientific facts. Different mathematical models were used to assess the losses due to mortality in young and adult sheep/goats, body weight loss in young and adult sheep/goats, milk loss, loss due to increased inter-lambing/kidding period, loss due to increased abortion, cost of high feeding a...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

... and causes considerable economic losses due to its high morbidity and mortality. The study was undertaken to detect and characterize the PPR virus (PPRV) circulating in Bangladesh. Twelve local isolates of Bangladeshi PPRV were successfully detected from post mortem samples (lymph node, spleen and trachea) of goats and a sheep during the year 2008-2012. The partial N gene of ten isolates and partial F gene of eight isolates were amplified by RT-PCR, and were ...

 Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

... role of important socio-economic factors in access to credit. The data were collected from 87 farming households in Mardan Tehsil of Mardan District. Questionnaire was the main tool used to collect the data from farmers. The credit access ratio formula was employed that measured farmers’ access, in relative terms, to their landholdings. Likewise, credit adequacy formula was used to investigate farmers’ credit adequacy. A probit model was employed ...

 Abdul Qahar and Bashir Ahmad

... optimum grain yield and economic benefits.

...

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

...mmals that enforce major economic threats to the livestock industry throughout the world. The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tick in goat’s population of three different areas (Kaptai, Kattoli and Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) of Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 60 goats were examined for tick infestation in three places using random positive sampling technique. Among the breed, Black Ben...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...al nomadic life to socio-economic and environmentally vulnerability in upland areas.

...

Hassan Tarik Atmaca

... a highly contagious and economically devastating viral disease of small ruminants and camels, and thus is negatively affecting the livelihoods of poor people in many developing countries. Efforts are being made to advance our understandings on different aspects of molecular biology of the virus and to consolidate national and international strengths to eradicate the disease from the planet. This Editorial highlights recent research articles and reviews that h...

Muhammad Aslam

... institutional and socio-economic constraints. Future prospects include upscaling of modern technology, enhanced seed production, improved inputs availability and use, improved irrigation, improved agriculture-education-training-research- extension-nexus, reclamation of salinized lands, improved agricultural credit and support price policies. Recommendations include improving agricultural research and extension systems, accelerating diffusion and adoption of l...

Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

... attempts to measure the economic benefits of milk marketing cooperatives working in two districts (Vehari and Muzzafargrah), geographically located in the southern region of Punjab province of Pakistan. The study analyzed the significance of milk marketing cooperatives by revealing and evaluating possible returns to smallholders in dairy sector. The hypothesis that milk marketing cooperatives are beneficial for milk producers was tested by surveying the coope...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...jor medical, social, and economic problems arise. Drug addiction is among major health issues faced by the World including Pakistan with an alarming annual increase in heroin addicts. The study was designed to identify the socio-demographic risk factors contributing to increasing susceptibility to heroin addiction in Pakistani populations. In this epidemiological study subjects were interviewed through a comprehensive questionnaire consisting of open and close...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...portant diseases causing economic losses to dairy farm owners. In order to develop new strategies to prevent mastitis, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the host immune response to the infectious agents is necessary. Identification of the genes, and their variants, involved in innate immune responses is essential for the understanding of this inflammatory disease and to identify potential genetic markers for resistance to mastitis...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

...the effects of important economic factors such as prices and income. Flexible Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System model is used to estimate food demand patterns using the Household Integrated Economic Survey of Pakistan for the year 2011-12. Food products are categorized into fourteen groups including milk, meat, fruits, vegetables, sugar, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats,...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...rtant resource with high economic value. Somatostatin (SS) is a neuropeptide family which effects growth, development and metabolism. In this study, full-length of one type of SS cDNA from C. nasus was synthesized, cloned and sequenced. This SS cDNA encodes a protein with 114 amino acids that contains the SS14 sequence at its C-terminus. This putative peptide is identical to that generated by the SS1 gene in other vertebrates. Tissue distribution of C. nasus S...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...R). Due to the important economical losses caused by this virus in Africa and Asia, the development of more effective, targeted and successful treatments for the disease are necessary. Like other Morbilliviruses, PPRV induces a suppression of the immune system during the acute disease, which favours the establishment and exacerbates the progression of secondary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among t...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...us disease causes severe economic loss due to reduced productivity of the affected animals as well as increased mortality in calves and kids. In this study proportionate prevalence of FMD in cattle was estimated and the distribution of FMD according to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospective FMD clinical cases were included considering clinical signs and drugs used for treatment during 13 January to 15 March 2015. A total of 131 cat...

Ibrar Khan1,2,3,*, Sadia Qayyum2, Shehzad Ahmed2, Kashif Syed Haleem2, Mujaddad-ur-Rehman1, Guang-Lei Liu3 and Zhen-Ming Chi3

...e of the most common and economically significant group of marine micro-fungi family. The study comprised isolation, microscopic observations and ribotyping, allowed discrimination of the marine fungal isolates as Penicillium viticola F1, Penicillium restrictum F2, Penicillium rubens F8, Penicillium implicatum F10, Penicillium piceum F11, Penicillium oxalicum F12, Penicillium sumatrense F15, and Penicillium vinaceum F16. This study demonstrated that Yellow Sea...

Fukuan Du1,2, Yan Li2, Zhixin Wen1, Ruguo Chen1 and Pao Xu2*

...f the most studied and deconomically important crustaceans in China. However, the production scale does not meet the market demand. This resulted in excessive fishing, which almost caused extinction of the species in the the Yangtze River. Therefore, it is very urgent to carry out genetic breeding to improve yield. In this study, we developed SSR markers by transcriptome, which could be used to genetic research. In this study, we performed transcriptome seque...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...at the fish farmers were economically active with a mean age of 42.5 years, majority (73.1%) were males, married (74.4%) and had one level of formal education or the other (82.5%). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant relationship between the respondents’ training needs on value addition initiatives and their age, educational level, years of experience and fish farm income. The value addition initiatives use profile of the fish farmers was still ve...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...s virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease of small ruminants that causes extensive livestock losses across areas where it is endemic. A serological survey on the prevalence of antibodies to PPRV was carried out in sheep and goats of Jatoi and surrounding areas in Muzaffargarh districts South Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 965 serum samples were collected from sheep and goat’s farms from January to December 2015 with no history of vaccinatio...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...l productivity and socio economic condition of the residents.

...

Zaffar Malik, Moazzam Jamil, Ghulam Hassan Abassi, Muhammmad Nafees, Muhammad Rafey and Muhammad Kamran

...iew the availability and economic level of the landholders.

...

Muhammad Afzal1 and Murad Khan2*

...align: justify;">To make economic analysis of broiler poultry farms, a survey research was carried out in district Lower Dir in 2015. Four tehsils were selected namely Adinzai, Balambat, Timergara and Sumerbagh on the basis of purposive sampling technique. From these tehsils, 92 farms were selected randomly from 460 poultry farms. The sample farms were categorized into three groups i.e. small, medium and large. For analysing the data, descriptive statistics an...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
... for the reproduction of economically domestic animals. Some microsatellites related to the fecundity of domestic animals have been identified. In the current study, we investigated five fecundity related microsatellites, including BM1329, BM143, LSCV043, OarHH35, and OarHH55, which had been identified in sheep. We estimated their diversity and population structure in three high fecundity goats (Jianzhou big ear goat, Jining grey goat, Dazu black goat) and thr...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...nt agricultural crops of economic importance.
...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
... resistant cultivars for economically important crops through molecular breeding techniques via utilizing advanced molecular markers involving cis and trans genetics. The review adhere recent research findings regarding disease resistance against viral diseases and concludes via shedding light upon the future prospects in this exciting field of research.
...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...e severe losses for many economical important crops in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This is the first report of the use of heterologous polyclonal antibodies (PAbs), raised against a geographically distinct begomovirus, ToLCNDV. The described results have shown to exhibit a many fold increase detection sensitivity and reproducibility hence, can be adopted for routine detection of ToLCNDV from plant extracts.
...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...chickens with subsequent economic losses to poultry industry. Effected birds show lymphocyte tumor, abnormal proliferation and series of tumors in connective tissues and other visceral organs. To evaluate the status of lymphoid leukosis virussubgroup A (ALV-A) infection in free-range chickens in five different cities of Anhui province, a total of 732 serum samples were analyzed through enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) in 2015 and 2016. The diagnosis ...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...ogy, chemical ecosystem, economic significance, and management. Beetles in the Cerambycidae family have implicit increasing importance as pests of green forest in addition to shade trees, shrubs, and pink wood products as well as vectors of tree ailments. The alien species related to hardwood packing substances have been remarkable tree destroyers in the urban and semi-urban areas of China. In forests flora and fauna inhabitant species take action against dist...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...ndrome results in severe economic losses in the pig industry. However, limited information on the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus-infected pigs is available. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify transcriptomes with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) of piglets, Large White x Landrace crossbreds, infected with live strain PED virus (PEDV). Several gene ontology (GO) and differentially expressed gene (DEG) are als...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...dle East and are causing economic losses in the commercial poultry production sectors. Due to potential of H9N2 infections in human, LPAI H9N2 poses serious public health risk. Therefore, development of new potent and cost-effective influenza vaccines is urgently needed to safeguard poultry and to contain zoonosis. The primary goal of this study was to develop H9 plasmid-based DNA vaccine against the currently circulating AIV subtype H9N2 targeting HA gene of ...

Waqar Islam

...d their damage caused to economically important crops are reportedly increasing every day particularly in the countries embedding tropical and subtropical conditions. Integrated management approaches involving utilization of virus resistant crops and efficient management of insect vectors can reduce this disastrous problem. However, in developing countries such strategies are rarely applied due to lack of farmer’s knowledge about plant virus diseases. Th...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...e sunflower by using the economical and environment friendly techniques. Present study was proposed to evaluate theresponse of spring and autumn sunflower to chemical and bio-fertilizers for yield and quality traits during 2014 at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The treatments comprised on the combination of chemical fertilizers (No chemical fertilizer, half recommended dose of fertilizer and full recommended dose of chemical fertilizer) and P...
Abdus-Subhan1, Qudratullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2, Muhammad Jamil Khan1, Ammanullah2, Matiullah Khan3
...y (WUE), wheat yield and economics, a field experiment was carried out at Arid Zone Research Center, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwah Province, Pakistan, during rabi season of 2014-15 and 2015-16. The experiment was laid in randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangement keeping pulverization viz. single tiller P1, double tiller P2, triple tiller P3 and mould board plow P4 followed by single r...
Ahmad Khan1, Raza Ullah Khan1*, Muhammad Zameer Khan1, Fayyaz Hussain1,Muhammad Ehsan Akhtar2, Jalal-Ud-Din3
...mplies it is optimum and economical to apply CDHA at 20 kg/ha whereas SFDHSs and MDHSs at 30-40 kg/ha for study area and vegetable.
...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
...ntal plants and weeds of economic value. The papaya mealybug feeds on the sap of the plants by inserting its stylets into the epidermis of the leaf as well as into the fruit and stem. In doing so, it injects a toxic substance into the leaves. The result is chlorosis, plant stunting, leaf deformation, early dropping of the leaves and fruits, a heavy accumulation of honeydew and death of the host plants. Heavy infestation is capable of making fruits inedible due...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...ith tremendous immediate economic gains but its abuses were not foreseen or ignored. As a consequence there arose the development of resistance to pesticides, pest resurgence and undesirable pesticide residue in the made tea as the major problems. Current trends in eco-friendly insect pest management practices emphasize the host plant resistance, preparation and application methods of new botanicals and microbial pesticide formulations, evaluation of field bio...

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh
...and ornamental plants of economic importance in Bangladesh perspectives.
 

 

...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...todes and diagnostics of economically important plant parasitic nematodes. Specific isozymes have been identified for differentiating the important root knot nematodes species of India belonging to the genus Meloiodogyne. Further, molecular markers like RAPDs, AFLP, SSRs and PCR–RFLP of rDNA have been employed to study the molecular genetic diversity in major root knot and cyst nematode species of India to assist the breeding program for developing resis...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...nce, and energy balance, economics ~ each with several variables. We are also providing ground and prepare to provide PA –specific data to the farmers. By Return per Rupee invested Rice-Potato-Pumpkin1, Cucumber-Cabbage-Basella alba, and Groundnut–Brinjal+Brinjal sequences were suitable for resource-rich growers, whereas Okra-Chilli+Chilli2 , and Black gram–Parwal+Parwal sequences were suitable for resource-poor growers. Overall, Groundnut&nd...

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...sease (LSD), which is an economically important disease of cattle and is caused by the LSD virus (LSDV). LSD is endemic in most countries of Africa and Middle East and can be transmitted either by mechanical as well as intrastadial and transstadial routes. Since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. In this study, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) g...
Rafi Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan1,*, Abdul Hafeez1, Asad Sultan1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2, Naila Chand1 and Naseer Ahmad1 
...0.05), indicating higher economic benefit. However, the gross return per bird and profit per kg meat were higher for diet D4 (P < 0.05). It was revealed that replacement of soyabean meal with silkworm meal did not affect broiler performance and carcass quality; therefore silkworm meal may effectively be used as a low-cost protein constituent in the broiler finisher ration.
...

Shahid Iqbal Khattak1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Khalid Naveed2 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan1

...e to test the effect and economics of soil vs. foliar applied nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen use efficiency on wheat variety Hashim-08. The experimental trial was conducted following RCB design with three replications. Fertilizer applications (foliar and soil) were assigned to main plots, while nitrogen levels 0, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 were kept in sub plots. Results revealed that foliar application of N significantly (P≤0.05) affected plant heigh...
Oaj Khurshid1*, Naureen Aurangzeb1, Ayaz Khan1, Alia Naz1, Abdullah khan1, Sobia Nisa2 and Sehrish Sajawal3
Hazrat Ali1,*, Wajid Ali1, Karim Ullah1, Fazle Akbar1, Sher Ahrar1, Irfan Ullah1, Irum Ahmad1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Ikram Ilahi2 and Muhammad Anwar Sajad3 
...nd Zn, in muscles of two economically important fish species, an herbivorous fish Schizothorax plagiostomus and a predatory fish Mastacembelus armatus, from three rivers of Malakand Division, Pakistan. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were determined in fish samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Highest Cu concentration of 4.52 ± 0.24 mg kg−1 wet weight was observed in muscles of M. armatus at Chakdara on River...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...a colonies and major economic losses (a serious threat) to beekeeping industry in Pakistan. Seven treatments including five essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), oregano (Origanium vulgare), lemon (Citrus lemon) and thyme (Thymus linearus), formic acid at three different concentrations of 25%, 50% and 100% and control were used against T. clareae in naturally infested honey b...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
...ffect of different socio-economic variables on the adoption response of different recommended production practice for citrus. Average age, education and experience of the citrus growers were estimated 43.92 years, 9.74 schooling years and 17.72 years respectively. The awareness and adoption of recommended citrus practices was generally good. The results of the logit model for adoption of recommended irrigation practices however postulate positive and significa...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...6 in Egypt caused severe economic losses for both commercial and backyard poultry production sectors. Owing to public health risk, effective control of the virus in imperative. DNA vaccination is a promising new approach for the prevention and treatment of many viral diseases because of its ability to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens encoded by recombinant DNA. The goal of this study was to construct Egy-H5 plasmid DNA-based v...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...ced weight gain. Besides economic losses to the poultry industry, these viruses pose a significant threat to public health. Owing to significant involvements of neuraminidase (NA) gene in virus pathobiology by mediating virus entry and release, the present study was conducted to determine the phylogenetic relationship of currently prevailing H9N2 isolates in Pakistan. A sum of ten H9N2 AIVs were isolated from 400 suspected samples and were confirmed through se...
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1
... of many insect pests of economic importance. Among 6,000 species of coccinellids described worldwide, only 75 species have been reported from Pakistan so far. Keeping in view the limited work on these important beetles, an extensive faunal survey was conducted in the district Sargodha (32°05’02’’ N and 72°40’18’’ E), Pakistan to assess the species richness and distribution of coccinellid beetles in seven selected re...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...nts, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry. Clinical investigation was carried out during the suspected outbreaks of PPR/FMD in sheep and goats in Hail. Saudi Arabia. During the outbreaks 271 (20.6%) died out of 648 (49.3%) of affected animals, the overall morbidity in goats (33.3%) was higher as compared to sheep (12.3%), with a case fatality rate in goats reached 74.69% in the 2nd outbreak. Affected animals exhibited fever, stomatiti...

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

... is one of the important economic activities in the area with an average annual income of Rs. 527,275/- per household. Results of paired t-test confirmed that beekeeping has significant effect on household income. On average of 2 family members per household were engaged in the beekeeping activity. It also provided multiple sources of employment mainly in honey transportation and marketing, thus beekeeping not only served as an income generating activity but a...
Sumit K. Satpathi1, Suprakash Pal2*, Rupsanatan Mandal2, Nonigopal Shit2 and Ashutosh Sarkar3
...etermine the utility and economics of biointensive pest management modules against major insect-pests of cowpea in comparison to conventional pesticide based pest management modules. The pesticide based management modules proved better as compared to the biopesticide based modules in managing the attack of sucking pests and pod borer of cowpea. The pesticide based IPM-II module resulted in the highest per cent reduction of pod borer population (91.17%) and the...
Asad Abdullah1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Waqar Hassan2,    Samina Khalid3, Yasir Iftikhar4, Muhammad Arshad1 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa5,6
...as applied upon reaching economic threshold levels of B. tabaci and A. biguttula. The insect pest population was recorded 24 hours before and 24h, 72h and 168h after spray. Maximum reduction of 60.20% of B. tabaci on Bt cotton was recorded at 6% NSE while at 2% concentration of NSE after 148 hrs, 39. 16% reduction was observed. While maximum reduction on non-Bt cotton at 6% recorded as 66.60% and minimum at 2% concentration r...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
... a greatest rigorous and economical pest of Apis mellifera L. worldwide. Many control measures including application of chemicals are adapted to resistor the influx of mites in hives of honey bee. The indiscriminate use of pesticides involve many problems; cause resistance in mites, residual in honey, wax and potentially hazardous to man and environment. Plant-derived mixtures are normally more easily degradable and could show a minor undesirable impact...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
...host range known for its economic losses worldwide. Its ability to develop resistance to insecticides faster to identify alternates like biocontrol agents, plant extracts etc. In the present study the extract of Citrullus colocynthis in different solvents were evaluated on second instar larvae of H. armigera under laboratory studies for toxicity, sublethal and antifeedant effect. The result showed that ethanol based extract was the most ef...
Mahmood-Ul-Hassan*, Naeem Fiaz, Muhammad Akhlaq Mudassir and Muhammad Yasin
... Pakistan for its better economic benefits however harvesting schedule of plant crop is essential since low temperature severely effects the sprouting of subsequent ratoon in cane growing areas. A field study was conducted on loamy soil during 2011-2013 at Sugarcane Research Institute (SRI), Faisalabad to explore the ratooning ability of five sugarcane varieties/clones under varying harvesting dates of plant crop using randomized complete block design (RCBD) w...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
...ycoplasmos is one of the economically significant disease in commercial poultry industry. This study aimed to develop and optimized a novel tPCR approach to detect Mycoplasma gallispeticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and nonpathogenic mycoplasmas at the same in a single PCR reaction collected from diseased chicken. Direct PCR from the clinical samples produced false negative results. Both culture and PCR were combined as culture-enhanced PCR approach. T...
Rehana Shahida1, Tasnim Farasat1, Shagufta Naz1,* and Shahjahan2
...ersonal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Fasting glucose and HbA1c was done by chemistry analyzer. Fasting serum insulin, IL-6, TNF-α and thrombomodulin levels were assessed by ELIZA. Gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were high in IGT and diabetic group as compared to control. ANOVA revealed highly significant difference of mean among groups and between groups ...

Sikandar Hayat, Khalid Usman* and Muhammad Tahir Amin 

...yield (5352 kg ha-1) and economic return as evident from the BCR data (3.80). 

...
Mubashir Hussain1,Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Ijaz Ahmad2*, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3 and Sohail Latif4
...ted to find out the socioeconomic feasibility of the techniques. The comparative analysis of seed bank extraction methods revealed higher weed seeds density, weed frequency with more diversity of weed species under sieving method in comparison to seedling emergence method. Therefore, sieving method was considered superior over seedling emergence method. The feasibility analysis of seed bank extraction methods indicated that sieving was cost-effective, less tim...

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

...concludes that the socio-economic conditions of the farmers can be improved if credit programme is extended which could benefit all farmers in the area. 

...
Zahid Latif1,*, Kathrin Blasius2-4, Tufail Hussain Tahir7, Muhammad Nasim Khan1, Ghazanfar Ali5, Ansar Ahmed Abbasi6, Abdul Rauf1, Hao Hu8 and Angela M. Kaindl2,3,4
...as a negative social and economic wellbeing impact on individual’s life. In society, the negative impact of visual impairment is the rejection and exclusion from all healthy activities of life. Patients suffering with RP first experience nyctalopia which gradually progress to tunnel vision and ultimately masks with complete blindness. Autosomal recessive mode of inheritance which contributes 20-25% of total known cases of RP, is almost the result of inbr...

Muhammad Anas1, Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2*, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Sohail Latif5 

...all intercrops gave more economic returns than sole cropping of sunflower and mungbean and planting 6 sunflower plants + 30 mungbean plants m-2 proved to be superior with respect to grain yield and net economic return per unit area. Sunflower appeared to be dominant crop as was indicated by its higher values of competitive ratio and positive sign of aggressivity. However, on the basis of land equivalent ratio, maximum yield ...
Sher Khan Panhwar1,2,3, Zhou Yong Dong1,4,*, Gao Tianxiang1,3, Wang Ping5, Han Zhiqiang1, Wang Zhongming1,4 and Wang Yang1,4
...ment priorities for this economically and ecologically important species in the ECS.
...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

... directly suffer a great economic loss.
...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...dae), is one of the most economically important and widespread pests of okra and causes worldwide yield losses. The pest is mainly controlled by chemicals which cause deleterious effects to human, livestock and environment. To dispense with the detrimental consequences of chemicals, use of resistant cultivars can prove one of the effective and reliable alternative approaches for the management of this pest. As the information regarding resistant cultivars is l...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Munir3 and Muhammad Sohail Khan

...or optimum fruit set and economic yield. However, delayed pollination improved the fruit quality characters but at the expense of decreased fruit set and yield and increased percent fruit drop. 

...

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

...s productivity and wheat economical yield in rainfedagriculture can be enhance by once mould board plowing following 4 cultivations with planker (1 MBP + 4 CS). However, further long term investigations are recommended tostudy the dynamics of conserved soil moisture under conservation tillage system.

...
Muhammad Iqbal Anjum*, Shahbaz Javaid and Mukhtar Ahmad Nadeem
...in, feed: gain ratio and economic efficiency in broiler chicks.
...

Ayesha Aihetasham*, Faiza Qayyum and Muhammad Xaaceph

...: justify;">Termites are economically important insects. They cause damage to furniture, household goods, timber and forest vegetation. Present study was designed to determine the effect of fungus isolates at six different exposure times on Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann), which is one of the major destructive termites of Pakistan. Fungal conidia were repellent to C. heimi. The workers of C. heimi were exposed to fungus for 60, 45, 30, 20, 15, 10 minutes and perce...
Zia ur Rehman1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3
...t gain, FCR and are more economical to be reared in hot summer season in tropical climates of Pakistan, while Cobb and Hubbard strains performed better in TN environment.
...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...re responsible for major economic losses at poultry farms especially during during co-infections of respiratory pathogens. However, impact of co-infections is not well known, especially in broilers. The current study was aimed to assess the probable synergism of E. coli (O78) and velogenic Newcastle disease virus in the broiler model. Three-week-old commercial broilers were inoculated with either vNDV, E. coli serotype O78 or both agents simultan...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Ather Javed Khan2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Ahmad Kamran Khan4 

...3% farmers were aware of economic threshold level of harmful insects, use of pesticides at economic threshold level and clean cotton picking respectively. 94.7% growers adopted thinning of plants, 91.3% knew pest scouting, 87.3% used pesticides after pest scouting while 74% farmers used pesticides both at morning and evening. It was concluded that integrated pest management project enhanced the skills of farmers and resulted...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...is responsible for heavy economic losses in cattle and buffalo. So rapid and accurate diagnosis of FMD is uttermost need of this time. Several lab.techniques are developed for rapid detection of FMD but these are expensive and time consuming. Elisa, cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase (RT-PCR) and real time PCR need specific high quality equipments in lab. Whereas Lamp PCR is simple and accurate test for the rapid diagnosis of FMD. This study has been done ini...
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
...R) is a highly fatal and economically devastating disease of sheep and goats. Present study was designed to have an insight into the epidemiology of PPR under field conditions in the country using molecular tools. A total of eighty-four (n = 84) PPR outbreaks were investigated during the study (2010 to 2013). The highest number of outbreaks was reported from Punjab province (n = 38) followed by Sindh (n = 21) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK, n = 10). In 48 out of ...

Saima Akhtar Qureshi1 and Asim Anwar2*, Ather Maqsood Ahmed

...the study is to evaluate economic feasibility of IPM method in Punjab. The study consisted of 326 farmers (161 IPM producer and 165 NON-IPM producers) and compared input and output outcomes of IPM and NON-IPM farms and provided a detailed evidence of overall production of both farms. The results suggest that IPM farms yield 4.8 percent higher output/hectare than NON-IPM farms and used3.6 percent lower inputs. 

...

Fazal Ullah1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Syeda Leeda Gul2, Bibi Zainub1 and Maaz Khan

...g long term storage with economic benefits. 

...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...rmance of F2, economic analysis showed that maximum net income and benefit cost ratio were obtained where (F3)75% recommended dose of NPK + 1.5 t ha-1 poultry manure was applied. Therfore, it can be concluded that 75% recommended dose of NPK + 1.5 t ha-1 PM along with Azospirillum seed inoculation could be a better management approach for sustainable wheat production.
...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

...age, education and socio economic status. Anemia in pregnancy nowadays is still a common problem in adolescent and young primigravida and associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Prompt measure should be taken by the stake holders at local and national level to prevent and treat this problem in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with it. 

...

Sidra Majeed, Shahid Ahmad*, Asif Ali Bhatti** and Ghazanfar Abbas***

 Mohammad Siddique Munawar, Shazia Raja, Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure* and Muhammad Barkat**

...at inflicts considerable economic losses to beekeepers. All work was undertaken in a commercial apiary that showed visual signs of AFB infection. Twenty four hives positive for AFB were identified from the apiary (4 colonies in each replicate). Half of the colonies were treated with shook swarm method while other half were left without any treatment. The treated colonies showed significant difference from untreated colonies (t test, P< 0.005) and moribund c...

 Rahmat Ullah Khan, Abdur Rashid*, Mohammad Sohail Khan** and Erdogan Ozturk***

... appeared to be the most economical rate to obtain the maximum yield of wheat under the rainfed conditions of Dera Ismail Khan. HA has great potential as a low cost natural fertilizer to improve soil fertility on sustainable basis.

...

 Mazher Abbas*, Muhammad Waqas Akram**, Ikram Saeed*** and Arshed Bashir*

... conducted to assess the economics of non-conventional oilseed crops in the Punjab. Therefore 60 respondents were taken from Faisalabad, Toba Tek Singh and Chiniot districts of Central Punjab. Percent area allocated to canola crop was comparatively higher at medium farms as compared to small and large farms. The results of the study showed higher yield of canola at large farms as compared to medium and small farms. Average gross revenue by small, medium and la...

 Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Hassnain Shah, Waqar Akhtar and Nadeem Akmal**

...ificance for the overall economic performance of a country. In this paper the terms of trade (1991-2003) for Pakistan’s crop sector have been worked out to reveal how the sector has performed over time in terms of profitability. Various indices were worked out to view the profitability from different angles using weights, giving due importance to all the contributing factors. The results revealed that Pakistani farmers’ profitability improved sligh...

 Sumia Bint Zaman, Sidra Majeed and Shahid Ahmad*

...to conduct a comparative economic analysis of alternate feasible options e.g. production of oilseeds, which are also being imported in large quantities. Temporal analysis (1950-09) for edible oil consumption, production and imports is made. Projections for edible oil are worked out up to 2030. As there have been large variations in yield of Jatropha reported by various studies conducted in India and other countries, therefore most reliable data have been selec...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah, Shahid Masood** and Muhammad Irfan Khan*

...itation of the plant for economic benefits of the local communities.

...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

...imate change on the socioeconomic characteristic and livelihoods of farmers in semi arid zones of Punjab and Khyber Pukhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan. Data for the study has been taken from various issues of Crop Area Production (by districts) MINFA (Economic Wing), district agricultural departments and meteorological department, Islamabad. Primary data for the study was collected in 2010 by conducting farm level surveys in ...

 Rubina Bano, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif and Waqar Akhtar*

...riptive analysis of socioeconomic characteristics of the sample poultry farmers along with cost and profitability analysis. Broiler farming was done by adult males on full time basis. It was the main source of income of a family. The average flock size in the study area was 4033 birds. The study also bifurcates the cost structure and fixed cost accounts for 7 % while variable cost accounts for 93% of total cost of production. Feed makes the major share and acc...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Sehrish Bilal1, Madeeha Khalid1, Muhammad Tahir Nazir1 and A.R. Shakoori2

 

...castaneum and a socioeconomic insect, Apis mellifera. A comparative study was designed to identify the role of saponins on insect acetylcholinesterase (AChEs). The enzyme activities were tested for the effect of saponins. The AChE activity of T. castaneum was inhibited by the saponins and follows competitive inhibition kinetics. In case of A. mellifera enzyme activity was not inhibited. In vitro and in vivo inhibit...

Anish Shrestha 

... of analyzing production economics, resource use efficiency, technical efficiency and production problem of honey, produced from Apis mellifera. Total of fifty five households were randomly selected as the sample for the study. Farmers were rearing on an average 34.54 hives and average honey productivity was 34.6 Kg/hive. Average production cost was NRs. 7392.52 with the average net profit of NRs. 2987.05 (1 USD = 106 NRs), and B:C ratio was 1.67. Labor cost, ...

Imtiaz Hussain*, Hassnain Shah, M. Azeem Khan, Waqar Akhtar**, Abdul Majid*** and M. Yaqub Mujahid*

Corresponding author:izhussain@yahoo.com

PRODUCTIVITY IN RICE-WHEAT CROP ROTATION OF PUNJAB: AN APPLICATION OF TYPICAL FARM METHODOLOGY
...re is need to assess the economic impact and evaluation of berseem in rice-wheat cropping system and evaluation of different wheat planting techniques in relation with residue management. These techniques may include farmer practice (partial burning, land preparation and broadcast); partial burning zero tillage ; Farm Machinary Institute seeder (planting with in the residue). 

...

  Farhat Ullah Khan, Nowshad Khan and Zaibunnisa Abdullah*

Corresponding author: farhatkhan7@gmail.com (This is part of Ph.D. work of senior author)

IMPACT OFKINNOW (MANDARIN) YIELD LOSSES ON SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE FARMING COMMUNITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... (Mandarin) on the socio-economic conditions of the farming community of the area. In this study, 20 union councils from Tehsil Sargodha were selected on the characteristics important for higher production of kinnow. Then ten growers from each union council were chosen randomly. Total 200 respondents were interviewed through interview schedule. Simple percentage and chi-square techniques were used for analysis. According to analysis 91.5% respondents reported ...

 Javid Iqbal, Asghar Ali Mian, Tanveer Ahmad*, Shamsul Hassan** and Sohail Hassan Khan* 

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT ECONOMIC TRAITS OF FOUR IMPORTED BROILER STRAINS UNDER LOCAL CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
...mpare the performance of economic traits of four internationally reputed broiler strains, imported in Pakistan, under the local environmental and management conditions. A total of 360 day old chicks of four broiler strains (90 from each strain) were procured from the local hatcheries and designated as four treatments i.e., A (Hubbard), B (Arbor Acres), C (Ross 308) and D (Hybro PN). The chicks were raised under recommended rearing requirements for 7 weeks and ...

 Mazher Abbas*, Tahir Mehmood**, Arshed Bashir*, Muneeb Zafar*** and Aneela Afzal****

ECONOMICS OF LALLEMANTIA ROYLEANA (TUKHAM-EBALANGOO) PRODUCTION IN THE LOW INTENSITY CROPPING ZONE OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... conducted to assess the economics of medicinal crops in the low intensity cropping zone of Punjab. Therefore 80 respondents were taken from Karror Laal Eson and Layyah tehsil of Layyah in Punjab. Percent area allocated to Lallemantia royleana crop was comparatively higher at small farms as compared to medium and large farms. The study showed higher yield of L. royleana at large farms as compared to medium and small farms. Average gross revenue by small, mediu...

 Faisal Khalil, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Ammaz Khan, Fakhar-ul-Hassan and Nabila Bibi*

EFFECT OF GIRDLING AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON PRODUCTIVITY IN OLIVE (OLEA EUROPAEA)
...to their nutritional and economic importance. Unfruitfulness in olive has frequently been observed which may be attributed to numerous factors. Some of them are probably related to the internal imbalance of growth regulators and other physiological factors. Plant growth regulating hormones like gibberellic acid (GA ), salicylic acid (SA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) alone and/ 3 or coupled with girdling operations may improve cropping potential of existin...

 Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Muhammad Ansar*, Ashiq Saleem**, Zafar ullah Arif*, H.I. Javed and Rashid Saleem**

IMPROVEMENT OF MASH BEAN PRODUCTION UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS BY RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION AND LOW RATES OF STARTER NITROGEN
...ective by giving maximum economic yield. Various treatments exhibited significant differences for harvest index; however, maximum harvest index (22.04 %) was recorded in control plots. N in soil was increased by inoculation in -1 -1 combination with 40 and 50 kg N ha and 50 kg N ha alone, nevertheless, maximum -1 N in soil was recorded in inoculation + 50 kg N ha . 

...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Azim Malik**, Nasir Mahmood Cheema* and Muhammad Umair***

ECONOMICS OF WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...cropping system could be economically replaced with wheat-maize fodder-wheat cropping system even under drought condition and there will be no economical loss of wheat yield when planted after maize fodder. Application of recommended dose of fertilizer -1 along with FYM @ 5 tha will enhance the yield of wheat and maize fodder. The improved cropping system of wheat-maize fodder-wheat will help the farmers to sustain productiv...

 Arshad Ali, Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Imdad Ali Mahmood and Badar-uz-Zaman*

RICE PRODUCTIVITY AND SOIL HEALTH AS AFFECTED BY WHEAT RESIDUE INCORPORATION ALONG WITH NITROGEN STARTER DOSE UNDER SALT-AFFECTED SOIL

 Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Muhammad Arshadullah, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

EFFECT OF BORON NUTRITION ON PADDY YIELD UNDER SALINESODIC SOILS

 Shafique Qadir Memon*, Muhamamd Safar Mirjat, Abdul Quadir Mughal** Nadeem Amjad***, Muhammad Azhar Saeed, Shabbir Kalwar, Asif Ali Mirani and Habib Iqbal Javed****

TILLAGE AND NPK EFFECT ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SPRING MAIZE IN ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop.

...

 Tabinda Qaiser*, Ayesha Tahir*, Sajida Taj* and Murad Ali*

BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS OF APICULTURE ENTERPRISE: A CASE STUDY IN DISTRICT CHAKWAL, PAKISTAN
...on the basis of the socioeconomic context of the country and some special features of the enterprise.

...

 Muhammad Tayyab Mudassar*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Muhammad Naeemullah**, Muhammad Shakeel*, Muhammad Ashfaque*, Asmat un Nisa* and Javed Khan*

ECONOMIC REARING OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) IN INSECTARY
...lla eggs, which was more economical than that of P. solenopsis crawlers. For efficient and quality production of C. carnea in laboratory using available and inexpensive equipment to produce the healthy surplus of this predator for experiment and small holding field releases, S. cereallela is recommended as more efficient and economic host as compared to P. solenopsis.

...

 Nusrat Habib*, Muhammad Zubair Anwar* and Ikram Saeed*

COMPARATIVE PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF RECOMMENDED MUNGBEAN VARIETIES AT NARC EXPERIMENTAL STATION, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...best variety in terms of economic benefit. The results of the study were anticipated to provide basis for devising strategy to improve and sustain future mungbean production. The scope for increasing production through adopting drought resistance high yielding varieties and improved management practice seems to contribute significantly. The output-input ratios of AZRI-06, NM- -1 -1 06 and NM-98 were 3.05, 2.79 and 2.41 with revenue crop day acre of Rs.451, Rs....

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Sonila Hassan**

ECONOMICS OF COW MILK PRODUCTION IN SINDH AND AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR
...dy aimed to find out the economics of major breeds of cow in selected areas of Sindh and Azad Jammu and Kashmir. It is based on primary data of 130 livestock farmers, selected through simple random sampling technique. Shares of different feed resources in total feeding cost have been determined and cost-benefit analysis of milk production by ecological zones was also conducted. Wide variations in share of feed sources in total feeding cost per annum, milk prod...

 Farman Ullah Shah*, G. Mustafa Sajid** and Sadar Uddin Siddiqui**

EVALUATION OF MULCHING MATERIALS AS INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT COMPONENT IN MAIZE CROP
...n weedy check plots. The economic net returns of black plastic mulch and weeds as mulch were Rs. 39,824 and Rs. 38,291, respectively as compared to Rs. 21431 for weedy check. Yield increased by 21.1 and 16.5% over hand weeding by plastic mulch and weeds as mulch, respectively. Black plastic followed by weeds as mulch, are recommended to control weeds and get maximum yield as well as net economic return.

...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi* and Abdul Jabbar**

SEAFOOD EXPORTS: CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD
...ne of the most important economic activity along the coastline of provinces of Sindh and Balochistan. This paper assesses current stock of seafood production, seafood exports, direction and future prospects of seafood exports from Pakistan. The production of inland and marine fish was 729,000 t in 2012-13. Not only seafood output in the country is low but dwindling to the disastrous level. Export of seafood has increased from 131,620 t (a value of US$ 315.5 mi...

 Muhammad Aamir Khan*, Abdul Saboor*, Rauf-i-Azam**, Abdul Qayyum Mohsin* and Fayyaz-ul-Hassan***

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON INCOME INEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN
...ng countries to increase economic growth and therefore reducing poverty. In this backdrop, the current study evaluates the impact of Pakistan’s agricultural trade liberalization using a modified Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) framework. The newly developed MyGTAP program was used to modify the Pakistan’s data in the Global GTAP Database and Standard GTAP model to include multiple households and labor types. This disaggregation allows to analy...

 Syeda Aimen Hadi*, Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry*, Aftab Ahmed** and Shaheer Ellahi Khan***

PERCEPTION, APPROACHES AND PRACTICES OF LOCAL FARMING AND DEVELOPMENT: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH
...ular ecological, social, economical, and political system, shaped by the constraints and opportunities associated to the area. Effective and successful development projects must include the local perceptions, their approaches and practices, as the locals are the ones most representative of their issues and have the most workable solution to them. The traditional agriculture has completely been clutched into the nexus of modern farming methods, due to which the...

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF VIRO CARE GZ-08 AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN POULTRY AND ITS IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY
...NDV). It is causing huge economic losses in poultry industry of Pakistan. Regardless of vaccination, other prevention and control measures are necessary to prevent ND outbreaks. Natural resources have been exploited to obtain antiviral compounds in several latest studies. In this study, the antiviral activity of Viro Care GZ-08™ was checked up invitro, in-ovo and in-vivo. The cytotoxicity assay of the product was performed using Vero cell line. All the t...

 Amjad Pervez*, Syed Muzaffar Ahmed*, Akhlaq Ahmad** and Qazi Mehmood Ali**

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FOOD GRAINS AS BAITS FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYSTRIX INDICA
...Hystrix indica, being an economically important rodent pest of agriculture, forestry and irrigation network in Pakistan.

...

 Nouman Badar*, Hina Fatima**, Abdul Jabbar*** and Muhammad Asif*

MAJOR FOOD CROPS PRODUCTION AND YIELD FORECAST IN PAKISTAN

 Imdad Ali Mahmood*, Arshad Ali**, Armghan Shahzad**, Muhammad Asif Masud Ghumman***, Muhammad Arshad Ullah**, Tariq Sultan** and Badar-u-Zaman**

CROP RESIDUES AND PHOSPHORUS EFFECT ON YIELD AND ECONOMICS OF DIRECT SEEDED RICE AND WHEAT GROWN UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOIL
...nvestigate the yield and economics of direct seeded rice and wheat under crop residue incorporation and phosphorus applications. Split plot design (crop residue in main plots and P application in sub plots) was followed with three replications. Biomass yields were collected at maturity of each crop. Maximum straw and grain -1 yields of both crops were harvested with the application of P O @ 80 kg ha along 2 5 -1 with crop residues incorporations. Overall 2.75 ...

 Hafiz Saqib Habib*, Arshad Mahmood Malik*, Abid Ali** and Muhammad Aamir Khan***

SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF RURAL HOUSEHOLD FOOD EXPENDITURES IN RAWALPINDI
...imed to analyze the socioeconomic factors effecting total food expenditures of households in rural area of Rawalpindi tehsil. Respondents were selected randomly and data were collected through questionnaire. A multiple double log regression model was used because it has an advantage that estimated parameter can easily be explained as expendi-tures elasticity. This model is used to give details of responses in socioeconomic f...

Sumia Bint Zaman*, Waqas Farooq*, Sidra Majeed*, Hasnain Shah*, and Abdul Majid**

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICE PROVIDERS' TRAINING ON WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN POTHWAR REGION
... effectiveness, the socioeconomic backup for assessment of these trainings was included as part of the activity. The information for paper is collected from opinions of the participants before and after the training. Descriptive analysis alongwith paired 't' test was used to measure the effectiveness of training. Results indicated higher satisfactory level as majority of the participants were strongly agreed (73%) and agreed (23%) that trainings were participa...

 Muneeb Zafar*, Tahir Mehmood**, Irfan Ahmad Baig**, Abdul Saboor** Mazher Abbas***, Shumaila Sadiq** and Khalid Mahmood****

ANALYTICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NON-OPTIMAL USE OF PESTICIDES AND HEALTH HAZARDS FOR VEGETABLE PICKERS
...ve use of pesticides and economic cost of health hazards for the vegetable pickers in district Vehari. Data from 90 respondents were collected and analyzed. The most common health problems identified during the survey were headache, eye irritation, skin infection, cough and shortness of breath. Health cost consists of costs related to precautionary measure, medication, traveling, the opportunity cost of attended persons and productivity loss. The mean health c...

 Waqar Akhtar*, Muhammad Sharif**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla*** and Muhammad Azeem Khan*

COMPETITIVENESS OF TOMATO PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...veness at farm level and economic efficiency at country level of tomato production in relation to tomato trade by using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) framework in Punjab, Pakistan. The province was divided into two tomato production regions i.e., Central and Southern Punjab for analysis purpose under importable scenario by using import parity price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has competitiveness under prevaili...

 Nisar Ahmed Soomro*, Abdul Fatah Soomro**, Hamz Ali Samo* and
Muhammad Siddique Depar***

GROWTH AND YIELD COMPARISONS OF FOUR COMMERCIAL WHEAT VARIETIES TO IRRIGATION FREQUENCIES
...equate to produce higher economic grain yield ha .

...

 Hafiz Sultan Mahmood*, Tanveer Ahmad*, Zulfiqar Ali*, Munir Ahmad** and Nadeem Amjad***

FIELD EVALUATION OF A WHEAT STRAW CHOPPER
...jab and to determine the economics of this machine. Five test plots ranging from 0.39 to 0.61 ha were selected to determine the performance of this machine. Results revealed that a 75 hp tractor was suitable for operating this machine. Average operating speed of chopper was 2.7 km h . Average effective field capacity of chopper was 0.40 ha h and field efficiency was 67.9%. Amount of chaff recovered was 2404 kg ha and chaff recovery from straw was 61.1%. The op...

 Ghazala Nawaz*, Muhammad Nawaz Malik**, Muhammad Hassan
Mushtaq***, Fraz Munir Ahmad****, Ali Abdullah Shah*****, Farooq
Iqbal******, Shinawar Waseem Ali*******, Zahida Fatima******** and
Amjad Khan*********

SURVEILLANCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN LIVESTOCK IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...akistan. Where the socio-economic conditions of rural population does not allow test and slaughter policy, therefore, mass vaccination is recommended to control brucellosis through local government support.

...

 Nusrat Habib*

RELATIVE PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF SUNFLOWER IN DISTRICT SWABI AND MARDAN
...with lesser profit. This economic benefit in other crops was the major reason for sunflower non-adoption in selected districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

...

 Ehsanullah*, Muhammad Amjad Shahzad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Ali Zohaib*, Muhammad Ishfaq* and Ejaz Ahmad Warraich*

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOWING METHODS AND PLANTING DENSITIES ON GROWTH, YIELD, FIBER QUALITY AND ECONOMIC EFFICACY OF COTTON
...owth, yield, quality and economic returns of cotton. Sowing methods included pit planting (1 m × 1 m pits), bed planting (75 cm apart beds), ridge planting (75 cm apart ridges) and line sowing with varied inter row spacing (25, 50 and 75 cm). Sowing methods significantly affected growth and yield of cotton. Pit planting imposed maximum increase in plant height (152 cm), number of monopodial branches (4.7) and sympodial branches (22.6) per plant, number o...

Sher Muhammad , Ijaz Ashraf*, Amir Khatam**, and Naima
Nawaz*** 

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN ACTIVITIES OF MODEL FARM SERVICES CENTERS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
...nfluenced by their socio-economic characteristics. The target population of current study consisted of the member farmers of the MFSCs in four districts of KPK having different ecological mix cropping zones. Data were collected with the help of a validated and reliable interview schedule through a research team comprising of four members who were properly trained for the purpose. Highest farmers' participation was perceived in supply of inputs and was ranked 1...
Muhammad Sharif1*, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz2, Muhammad Ansar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Syed Abdul Sadiq5
...tion tillage practicefor economical benefits and sufficient wheat yields in rainfed Pothwar, Pakistan.
...
Waqar Islam*
...t disease can cause huge economic losses leading towards the famine. To cope with this situation, understanding plant disease triangle and disease epidemic forecasting is very important. So here we have briefly introduced plant disease epidemiology through highlighting its various types by giving important examples. We further have explained the plant disease triangle and disease forecasting systems via inclusion of various models being utilized worldwide.&nbs...
Dachuan Cheng1,2, Md Mahbubul Hassan3, Zhenhua Ma1, 2, 3,*, Qibin Yang1 and Jian G. Qin3
...ffect animal welfare and economic return in aquaculture but very limited information exists on skeletal ontogeny and anomalies among species of the family Lutjanidae. This study describes the skeletal ontogeny and anomalies of crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus larvae and juveniles from hatching to 36 day-post hatching (DPH). Mandible, ceratobranchial, cleithrum and gill arches were the initial skeletal structures appeared at 3 DPH that supported th...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
...ently causes an enormous economic losses. It is a disease of sheep and goat, particularly in the regions of Africa, Middle East and Asia. Besides clinical signs and symptoms of PPR various diagnostic assays, both serological and molecular, have been developed and are applied for estimating the current status of the disease. This review article focuses on the development of different molecular diagnostic assays from conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase...
Ali Haider Saleem1,*, Khalid Javed2, Masroor Ellahi Babar3, Tanveer Hussain3, Asad Ali2, Afzal Ali2, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Zahid Farooq1 and Muhammad Dawood2
...be associated with other economic traits for future breeding programs and marker assisted selection.
...
Abid Hussain1,*, Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad2, Muhammad Hussan Mushtaq2, Mamoona Chaudhry2, Muhammad Sarwar Khan2, Michael Reichel3, Tanveer Hussain4, Amjad Khan2, MuhammadNisar2 and Imtiaz Ahmad Khan5
...ly. Mastitis has greater economic losses in the dairy industry and it can be minimized by improving management and milking practices. It is concluded from the present study that mastitis increases when herd size increase. It order to control the mastitis, it is mandatory to screen the mastitis cases at quarter and herd size level.
...
Riyadh S. Aljumaah*, Mohammed A. Alshaikh, Abdulrahman Jarelnabi, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman and Mansour F. Hussein
...e pathogenic effects and economic consequences of neosporosis in camels.
...
Farhan Ahmad1,*, Muhammad Waris Sanjrani1, Shah Nawaz Khuhro1, Asif Sajjad2, Abid Ali3, Rashad Rasool Khan3, Farooq Ahmed3 and Junhe Liu4,*
... responsible to cause an economic damage. A survey of whitefly populations and its parasitism with connection to temperature and relative humidity was conducted in fourteen cotton growing districts of Sindh province (southern Pakistan) for 2012 and 2013 seasons. There was a significant difference in whitefly population and percent parasitism among the fourteen districts. The highest average whitefly populationof two consecutive years was recorded in Khaipur, S...
Sherin Reda Rouby
...regions with significant economic implication. Capripoxvirus isolates are extremely conserved with genome identities of at least 96% between SPPV, GTPV and LSDV. The LSDV is similar in antigenicity and in cultural characteristics to SPPV. The current study was delineated to identify capripoxviruses from different clinical samples and differentiate capripoxviruses without the need of gene sequencing. A total of 16 lumpy skin disease clinical samples (...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

...tely disturbing the socioeconomics of the farming community. Among the microbes, cyanobacteria are known as photoautotrophic, blue green algae which is not a truly eukaryotic algae and grown in different and such complex habitats freely and symbiotic association with large numbers of plants and microbial mats. In this regard, a pot experiment was carried out with the aim to assess the impact of different strains of cyanobacteria on rice crop growth and nutrien...
Arshad Mahmood Malik1, Khalid Mahmood Mughal2, Sarfraz Ahmed Mian2 and Atta Ullah Khan2
...n various production and economic variables was collected from FMP during 2009 to 2013. Variable of the study were area, area allocation decisions of farmer, customer structure, markets, costs involved in production process and revenue earned from selling of the produce in both local and in export market. Yield of hydroponic tomatoes was measured in hectares. Benefit cost ratio was studied and other measures of performance like export intensity, local penetrat...
Yakup Erdal Erturk1, Adem Aksoy2 and Mohammad Masood Tariq3,*
...ming animal production), economic factors (dry land, irrigated land, and pasturage land of the farmer) and biological factors (first live weight before fattening, and fattening period of the beef cattle) were found as influential factors on fattening final live weight in the crossbred beef cattle. The achieved results suggested that interaction effects of influential predictors entered into MARS prediction equation could change AFFLW per enterprise.
...

Saima Rani*, Hassnian Shah, Nusrat Habib and Muhammad Azeem Khan 

... the information of socioeconomic characteristics, awareness and preferences of organic vegetables and product attributes. The empirical findings indicate that age, employment status, income, education, number of children, taste, no chemical residual, high nutritional value, freshness and colour of the vegetables have positive effects on consumer to pay a high price. While in case of product size and shape has a adverse effect on consumer. Results indicate tha...
Zeqin Fu, Yunfang Tian, Yingying Ye*, Pengzhi Qi and Changwen Wu
... markets and importantly economic value. In this study, we used one hundred and twenty primers pairs to screen all microsatellite loci and twenty-three polymorphic loci were identified. The number of alleles per loci ranged from six to twenty-one with an average of 12.913 and the allele size varied between 161 and 470 bp. The observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.143 to 1.000 and from 0.351 to 0.926, with average values of 0.614 and 0.771, respect...

Xiangbin Meng1,Tianxiang Gao2, Chunhou Li3, Na Song1, Lu Liu1, Liqin Liu2 and Xiumei Zhang1,*

 

...epia esculenta is an economically important marine cephalopoda. The availability of highly polymorphic markers will be important to promote the conservation of this species. We performed next-generation sequencing and de novo assembly to obtain potential useful microsatellite markers for S. esculenta. Among 80 tested microsatellite markers, 19 showed polymorphism among S. esculenta individuals. The allele number of all polymorphic micr...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel2, Waqas Wakil3 and Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1,*
...doptera litura is an economic pest of different field crops including cauliflower. In the present study three commercial formulations of biorational insecticides viz., Bacillus thuringiensis (DiPel®), NPV (SpltNPV) and Flubendiamide (Belt®) evaluated (alone and in combination) against S. litura under field condition. Minimum plant infestation (7.60±0.40%) was observed three days after applica...
Ali Zaman1,*, Abdul Haleem1, Sajjad Ur Rahman2, Adnan Amin3 Asma Saeed1, Sana Ullah4 and Naimat Ullah4
... zoonotic of significant economic and public health concern. From total 650 broilers sera were taken, around the five geographically distinct districts and analyzed through hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of H5 antibodies. Highest sero-prevalence of Avian Influenza (H5) was recorded in district Abbottabad 36.15% (47/130) followed by Dera Ismail Khan 33.08% (43/130), Tank 26.92% (35/130), Peshawar 21.54% (28/130) and Mansehra 16.92% (22/130)...
Xi-wen Chen1,2, Qian Wang1,3, Miao Yin1, Zhong-hui Pu1,2, Ai-wei Guo3, Lian Li 1,3, Wen-tao Luo1,3 and Xiong-qing Wang1,*
...ngs.
...
Selçuk Kaplan
...ns between the genes and economic traits of livestock animals. However, phenotypic values do not generally indicate the real genotypic values of animals. However, using MAS approaches in selection of animals can increase the accuracy of selection. From this point of view, validation of candidate gene markers for marker assisted selection is very important to increase genetic gains in breeding. Leptin is a 16 kDa protein which is highly expressed in adipose tis...

Abdul Basit1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,4*, Sohail Ahmed2, Gohar Ali2 and Muhammad Javaid

...ld be more effective and economical to control fruit fly incidence on different vegetable crops such as M. charantia. 

...

Muhammad Fiaz1*, Muhammad Afzal1 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2 

...horina citri, one of the economic insect pests of citrus plants and a putative vector of Huanglongbing worldwide. Treatments were comprised of label-recommended (FD) and its half (HD) dose rates of spirotetramat and I. fumosorosea formulations. Both treatments were applied either alone or in binary combinations. There was a significant reduction in psyllid population for all treatment combinations as compared to control (F8, 107 = 70.36; P-value = 0.001 for 20...

Saeed Ullah1, Amanullah Jan1, Murad Ali2*, Wiqar Ahmad3, Hafeez Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Ishaq2 and Bilal Ahmad2  

... enhanced crop yield and economic return. This study investigated the effect of phosphorous (0, 35, 70 and 105 kg P2O5 ha-1) and zinc (0, 10, 20 and 30 kg ha-1) levels applied through broadcast and banding on chickpea growth and yield during winter 2013-14 at the New Developmental Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar. The experiment was carried out by following randomized complete block design procedure replicated four times. Pods number plant-1 (PN),...

Muhammad Shoaib Saleem*, Muhammad Faheem Akbar, Amjad Sultan and Saqib Ali 

... insect pests reached at economic threshold level (ETL). Pre-treatment data were taken before 24 hours and post-treatment data were recorded after 24, 72, 168 and 336 hours of each spray. In this manner the data of three sprays were collected. Amongst neonicotinoids Clothianidin was found to be very effective with 84% reduction in jassid population even after 7 days of application, followed by Nitenpyram 71% and Momentum 67%, while buprofezin showed moderate e...
Rana Khurram Aftab1*, Farhat Ijaz2, Samia Jawed3
...ups, age and socio–economic statuses. It has been found that obesity is closely associated and correlated with hypertension. Preventive strategies for obesity may offer a cost-effective approach towards lowering blood pressure.
Objectives: To determine the frequency of obesity according to body mass index and waist hip ratio and its relationship with hypertension among medical students.
Methodology: It was a descript...
Bo Wu1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,7, Yan Zhao1, Bin Jiang1, Chengjun Xue3, Muhammad Tariq Javed6, Fazul Nabi2, Zhaoqing Han5,* and Houqiang Luo4,*
...demic and causes serious economic losses to the pig industry. Currently, the epidemiological situation of FMD is uncertain in many regions of China and many outbreaks are not reported. This study was undertaken to investigate the sero-prevalence and immunization program optimization of serotype O of FMD through ELISA and IHA in pigs in Zhejiang. A total of 368 serum samples were collected from June to July in 2016. Out of these samples, 23 (6.79%, 95% CI 4.4-9...
Azmat Hayat Khan Khattak1, Muhammad Nauman ul Islam1, Muhammad Shakir Khan1, Muhammad Iqbal1, Imtiaz Ali Shah1,Sheeraz Ghani1, Amjad Ali2, Zubina Hameed1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan3 and Tariq Ali1,3,*
...r growth performance and economics. The experiment was performed at Livestock Research and Development Station (LR&DS), Surezai, Peshawar for a period of 12 weeks. The calves were fed with milk replacer (10% of their live body weight) in two equal doses, one in the morning followed by an evening dose, until the end of 8th week. The average birth weight of AJC was 15.75±2.43 kg; while, it was 28.18±0.87 kg for ABC calves. The averag...
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
... a highly contagious and economically devastating disease, is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides (MM) - a cluster of six member species. However, literature is not available regarding the causative agents of CCPP in sheep and goats in Northern Pakistan. The current study was thus aimed to identify relative abundance of members of MM in small ruminants suspected of CCPP in Northern region of Pakistan. A total of 300 samples, (150 sheep and 150 goats) were ran...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...oats, which lead to high economic impact in developing countries including India. The causative agent, Orf virus (ORFV) belong to the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV) of the family poxviridae produces a typical papillomatous, cauliflower like external growth around mouth regions and rarely the lesions are found in other parts of the body and internal organs. Another characteristic feature of ORFV including other PPVs is the ability to re-infect the same host and confe...
Wang-Dui Basang1, Tian-Wu An2, Luo-Bu Danjiu3, Yan-Bin Zhu1, Shi-Cheng He3, Xiao-Lin Luo2, Wei-Wei Ni4, Xiao Wang4, Shu-Zhu Cheng4, Jian Wang4 and Guang-Xin E4,*
... Tibetan plateau that is economically important for the Tibetan people. In this study, we investigated the diversity and phylogeography of four geographic ecotype populations of the Naqu yak (133 individuals) using an 811-bp mitochondrial DNA D-loop region sequence. In total, 57 polymorphic sites, including 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 3 single-nucleotide copy number variants, and 59 haplotypes were detected. The number of haplotypes within the popul...

Shahen Shah1*, Manzoor Hussain1, Arshad Jalal1, Mohammad Sayyar Khan2, Tariq Shah1, Muhammad Ilyas1 and Muhammad Uzair3 

... contributed towards the economics and reproductive traits of wheat. 

...

Sadiqa Begum1, Murad Khan2* and Noor Pao Khan

...yber Pakhtunkhwa to make economic and comparative analysis of wheat crop. Furthermore, two villages were selected from each district i.e. Lakarai and Barbar Opazai of district Peshawar and Khawo and Shamshad Abad of district Mardan. A questionnaire was used to collect data proportionately from 93 sample respondents. Budget allocation technique is used for calculation of cost, revenue and profit and dummy approach is used for comparative analysis while multiple...
Azmat Hayat Khan Khattak1, Abdul Wasay2, Tariq Ali1,*, Muhammad Iqbal1, Khisrao Kalim1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan3, Muhammad Mobashar2, Nazir Ahmad2, Abid Iqbal2 and Muhammad Nauman ul Islam1
...d feeding treatment. The economics of different weaning ages was also evaluated with maximum income from group-B (Rs. 71.1/day/calf). This study concluded that different weaning ages might contribute significantly to feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency of growing calves.
...
Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Selim Erdoğan3, Ecevit Eyduran3 andMohammad Masood Tariq4,*
...eraction effects of socioeconomic (age of enterprise, province of enterprise, educational level, membership status, other works except for beekeeping and number of full beehives), biological predictors (bee race and frequency of changing queen bee) affected honey yield per hive. As a result, it is recommended that the effect of socioeconomic and biological predictors on the yield should be assessed jointly for further studie...
Kiran Aqil1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan2, Asim Aslam2, Aqeel Javeed5, Rizwan Qayyum1, Farooq Yousaf,1 Farkhanda Yasmeen1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail3 and Sajid Umar4,*
...s, imparting substantial economic losses. In current study, antiviral activity of six dilutions of Nigella sativa (N. sativa)alcoholic extracts against the PPRV was investigated in vitro. Vero cell lines infected with PPRV were treated with six dilutions alcoholic extracts of N. sativa (200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 µg/mL). The antiviral effects were judged by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide colorime...
Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Ecevit Eyduran3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4,*
...ocess, the data on socio-economic (age, province, educational level, experience, social security, lands and the reason at ranching of the animal breeders) and biological factors (sex, first live weight before fattening and fattening period of the beef cattle) were recorded from the related beef cattle enterprises. For the statistical evaluation of MARS algorithm, the package “earth” of the R software was employed based on the smallest GCV value. In...

Muhammad Ishfaq1*, Nadeem Akbar1, Imran Khan1, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Usman Zulfiqar1, Muhammad Ahmad1, Mumtaz Ahmad2 and Muhammad Umer Chattha1 

...timum for successful and economic rice productivity under direct seeded rice. 

...
Naeem Ahmad1,* and Zulqurnain2*
... for farming, however an economic analysis for both strains determining benefit to cost ratio is pre-requisite before final recommendations.
...

Iqbal Javed1*, Amar Razzaq2, Mudassar Yasin3, Muhammad Ali Imran4, Haroon Javaid5, Iftikhar Nabi6, Anum Sardar1 and Shahbaz Ahmad

Iqbal Ahmad Alvi, Muhammad Asif, Rabia Tabassum, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*
...geration is suitable and economical means of long term storage with no fall of phage activity.
...
Wajid Ali1,*, Asma Karim1, Muhammad Irfan2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3*, Ghulam Mustafa4, Zeeshan Shafique1, Ijaz Anwar1
...s not only brought great economic benefits but also cause serious ecological harms like non-target toxicity of organism. Synthetic pyrethroid (deltamethrine) is widely used due to its less toxicity and easy degradation in soil.In this study,fresh water fish Hypophthalmicthyes molitrix were exposed to sub lethal concentrations of deltamethrine. Fish were divided into 4 groups and each group contains six fish. Experimental groups viz. A, B and C we...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Bushra Hassan2, Nadeem Anwar2, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel3 and Shafique-ur-Rehman

...development is linked to economic welfare of rural people. It involves uplifting of certain indicators of development and satisfying the needs of fragile groups of rural communities. This study examined socio-economic factors of rural life which contribute in economic prosperity. A list of union councils and villages in tehsil Sargodha was obtained from local district office of the Populat...

Amar Razzaq1, Abdur Rehman4*, Abdul Hassan Qureshi2, Iqbal Javed3, Raheel Saqib5 and Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal6 

...udy aimed to conduct the economic analysis of high efficiency irrigation systems in Punjab province of Pakistan. We also measured and compared the water productivity of modern and conventional-irrigated farms. We used primary data collected from 120 farmers located in Nurpur Thal, Bhalwal, Sargodha and Lodhran districts of Punjab province. These areas were purposively selected based on relatively higher concentration of HEI infrastructures installed on the far...

Sajad Ali1*, Syed Asghar Ali Shah2, Jaffar Ali3, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal4, Arshadullah Jadoon5 and Farmanullah

...ze the scenario of socio-economic, methodical and marketing restraints faced by the farmers in augmenting and stimulating export of the country. The pea’s cultivators and also market agents were quizzed by using structured questionnaires in two related districts that is Haripur and Mansehra in the year 2013-14. The data were analyzed by using SPSS Package version 22 for calculating marketing marginal analysis and cross-tabulation were also been employed....

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

...n in countries with same economic status of economical evolution. Overall requirements for this purpose in 2028–30 is estimated at approximately 5.30 million/tons from which domestic share could be only 1.99 million/tons. Generally, the genetically modified cotton (Bacillus thuringiensis) was acquaint in Pakistan during the first decade of this century to moderate harmful effects of lepidopterous insects; which were ca...

Muhammad Luqman1, Raheel Saqib2*, Mujahid Karim1, Khalid Nawab2, Abdur Rehman3 and Muhammad Yaseen1 

...er to find out its socio-economic impacts on the livelihoods of rural household in the Southern Punjab, the present study was carried out in 2016 at University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha. Data were collected from randomly selected 160 rural heads of households using interview schedule. Majority (76.2%) of the respondents were young (26 to 40 years). A significant majority (76.3%) were illiterate and only 23.8% were literate (Having more tha...

Amjad Ali1, Abbas Ullah Jan1, Lal Almas2, Noor Piao Khan1 and Khurran Nawaz Saddozai

...rict Charsadda. In socio-economic characteristics family size and extension contacts show negative correlation with allocative inefficiency. Mean allocative efficiency was found 63% with range from minimum 36% to maximum 90%. The presence of allocative inefficiency indicates that the average growers can reduce his cost of production (Rs.77,083/- per acre) up to 30% without any decrease in output level. Attractive output prices, timely payment and provision of ...

Mohsin Iqbal1, Farid Asif Shaheen1*, Farah Naz2, Muhammad Usman Raja2, Muhammad Fiaz3 and Muhammad Nadeem1 

...trol agents against this economic pest and proved good alternatives to chemicals. Less number of eggs (2 per grain), more number of holes (8.3 per grain), less number of F1 adults (20.3 per jar) and more number of days (7) to 100% mortality of C. chinensis adults were recorded when chickpea grains were treated with the highest concentration of B. bassiana as compared to that of M. anisopliae. These non-chemical control strategies will have significant contribu...

Shoaib Nawaz1, Muhammad Razaq1, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar1*, Muhammad Sajjad1*, Syeda Aneeza Ubaid1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2 and Usman Haider

Muhammad Mohsin1, Dai Guilin1,*, Chen Zhuo1, Yin Hengbin1 and Muhammad Noman2
...fishery status and their economic implications of major commercially hunted fish species. In this study maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of Carangoides fishery from Sindh, Pakistan is estimated by using catch and effort data. For data analysis, two specialized fishery software CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) were employed. Three surplus production models (SPMs) viz., Fox Model (FM), Scha...

Zubina Hameed1, Muhammad Azim Malik1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Ansar1, Farina Shaheen1, Ijaz Ahmad2 and Khisrao Kalim3 

...aved weeds and taking an economical yield of wheat. 

...

 Sumera Siddique1,†, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Muhammad Irfan1

Screening of some agri-wastes for economical cultivation of Candida tropicalis SS1
...and their efficiency for economic production of C. tropicalis SS1 which could be used as SCP supplementing animal feed’s formulations.

...

 Anam Javed, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Skin health implications of Chemical detergents and importance of biodetergents

Nabila Roohi, Mehjabeen, Samina Ashraf*

Effects of cigarette smoking on serum proteins profile in male active and passive smokers
..., weight
and socioeconomic set up. Serum protein profile was analyzed using commercially
available kits by using automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Serum total proteins
have shown a significant decrease in smokers in comparison with controls. A
significant depression in serum albumin was observed in smokers due to increased
excretion of albumin in bound state with the chemicals, whereas, total globulins,
gamma glob...

 Sobia Faisal1*,Qurat-ul-Ain Ahmad2, Maleeha Manzoor3, Madiha Manzoor4, Faisal Rifaq5

Socio-psychological factors related to tuberculosis diagnostic test seeking behavior in Pakistan
... of patients in low socioeconomic country like Pakistan in relation
to “Health Belief Model”, a best-fit health behavior theory. Literature was searched
systematically to find the studies addressing psychosocial factors affecting the
diagnostic test seeking behaviors of TB patients in Google scholar, Medline and
PubMed. The related articles had been reviewed for the period of 1998 to 2013.
Emphasis was laid to rev...

Muhammad Shahzad Akbar, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed* and Muhammad Afzal 

...itidae), one of the most economic subterranean termite species in Indo-Pak region. Label-recommended dose rates of insecticides were tested against worker termites using modified filter paper disc method according to completely randomized design. All insecticides caused significant mortality of termites as compared to control treatment. Formulations of chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr and pyriproxyfen exhibited maximum termite mortality, ranging from 31.18&pl...
Aiguo Zhou1,3,4, Shaolin Xie1,4, Zhenlu Wang1, Lanfen Fan1, Yanfeng Chen2, QiaoYe1, Fang Zeng1 and Jixing Zou1,*

 

...ne of the most important economic and conservational fish in China, but an uncertain classification has existed for many years. In present study, mitochondrial Cyt b gene was used to analyze the relationships and genetic diversity of two color morphs of northern snakehead. For the Chnannidae family, the average genetic distances of Cyt b gene was 0.171 (ranged 0.000 to 0.248) with the inter-species genetic distances. The intra-species genetic dis...

Raza Ullah1* and Jamal Shah

Muhammad Shabir Shaheen1, Shahid Mehmood1, Athar Mahmud1, Jibran Hussain1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi2, Muhammad Yaqoob3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Arshad Javid4,*
...e, cholesterol level and economic appraisal in term of running cost / Kg of live meat were recorded. The results revealed that all strains generally but Ross 308 particularly maintained on floor heating system (FH) exhibited significantly (P<0.05) better FCR, EEF and livability along with higher glucose and lower cholesterol level in blood with better immune response that led to higher profit margin. All these parameters were significantly (P<0.05) lowes...

Khwaja Tariq Ziad1, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad2 and Muhammad Suleman Bacha3* 

...tion of livestock in the economic development of a country is vital. Pakistan is blessed with abundant natural resources, especially vast agricultural resources on account of its fertile irrigated land, four seasons and glorious history of old traditions of farming. The current study is designed to analyse the response of participants an informal and formal supply chains for small-scale dairy farmers in Pakistan. The study aimed at explaining the costs of the ...

Shamsher Ali1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Zahir Shah2, Naveedullah3 and Abdul Jalal1 

..., hence, affecting socio economic condition of the farming community. Growing of salt tolerant crop genotypes of species on salt affected lands is an effective tool for getting desirable productivity. A two-factor experiment using complete randomized design with three replications in pots having silt loam soil was carried out on April 03, 2016 to examine three maize genotypes (Iqbal, Jalal, and Azam) under different salinity levels i.e. 0.4, 2.7, 5.2 and 7.6 d...

Muhammad Amin1, Aftab Ahmad Khan2, Abida Perveen1, Zareen Rauf1, Sher Shah Hassan2*, Muhammad Arif Goheer2 and Muhammad Ijaz2 

...ly affected socially and economically. The present study was conducted on dry land areas of Punjab-Pakistan. The satellite data for NDVI were acquired from MODIS product MOD13A2 for years from 1996 to 2015. For the same period the data of 12-Month SPI values, GPCC precipitation and CPC soil moisture were also used. In formulating Climatological drought year, the droughts of years 2000 and 2002 were categorized as moderate drought years for the area have Precip...
Pingping Cang1, Mingming Zhang1, Guo Qiao1,Qirui Sun1, Dehai Xu3, Qiang Li1, Xinghua Yuan4 and Wenbin Liu2,
...on growth, nutrition and economic profitability in mudflat fish aquaculture. A 60-d experiment was conducted in zero-water exchange BFT system. The results demonstrated that weight gain (WG), specific growth (SG) and survival in BFT group were 133.94%, 1.20% day-1 and 90.0%, respectively. In control group with a 1/4-1/3 daily water exchange, WG, SG and survival were significantly lower than those in BFT group. There were no statistical differences i...

Muhammad Naveed Afzal1, Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Ahmad1, Khuram Mubeen2, Muhammad Ayaz Khan3, Muhamamd Umer Afzal4 and Shakeel Ahmad

...ality. The agronomic and economic nutrient use efficiency and partial factor productivity (PFP) was maximum with low doses of nitrogen. Whereas, the percent relative yield (PRY) at 50 kg N was very low in relevance to 150 kg. 

...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

...n animals of significant economic importance. Haemonchus contortus, (helminths worm), is highly infectious parasite of small ruminants, and is a major cause of diseases and significant mortality in various cattle, sheep, deer, buffalo and goat, etc. Various synthetic anthelmintics have been used, on wide scale, to control the helminths infections.But the parasite worms have developed multiple resistances against the synthetic anthelmintics. Hence, vario...
Juan Augusto Hernández-Rivera1, Jaime Molina-Ochoa2,*, Luis Jorge García-Márquez1, Omar Francisco Prado-Rebolledo1, Rafael Julio Macedo-Barragán1, Arturo César García-Casillas1 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah3
...ber, fertility rate, and economic impact to observe clarity the potential of each crossbred in dairy cattle in the future.
...

Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza2, Sami Ullah1, 3*, Malik Muhammad Yousaf2, Ahmad Mujtaba1, Mumtaz Hussain2, Muhammad Jahangir Shah2, Bashir Ahmad2 and Ijaz Ahmad4 

Liqin Liu, Maoting Wang, Zhenming Lü, Li Gong*, ChangWen Wu, Baoying Guo and Lihua Jiang
...aonis, known for its economic value, is distributed in the tropical coastal waters of the Indo-pacific region. In this study, we developed twenty-one microsatellite loci for S. pharaonis through next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 100 alleles were detected, and the number of alleles per loci ranged from 2 to 9. The observed and expected heterozygosities per loci ranged from 0.000 to 0.531 and from 0.031 to 0.751, respectively. Polymorp...
Muhammad Usman Asif*, Raza Muhammad, Waseem Akbar, Mubasshir Sohail and Muhammad Awais  
...l insects remained below economic threshold level (ETL) during the period of study.  
...
Doğukan Ölmez1 and Gonca Alak2,*
...converted into different economic value products under controlled conditions. Under controlled conditions, byproducts have the potential to be converted into nutrients suitable for human consumption, as well as different products that have economic value. For this purpose, hydrolysates were prepared by enzymatic methods at different time periods using different trout byproducts. In this study, two different groups (viscera a...

Irfan Ullah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Muhammad Fayaz, Amjad Ali and Atta Ullah Shah 

...the effects of important economic factors such as prices and income. Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) model is used to estimate food demand patterns using the Household Integrated Economic Survey part of Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement for the year 2011-12. Fourteen food groups as per HIES including milk, meat, fruits, sugar, vegetables, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cer...

 Tung-Yi Kho

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...pact on product quality, economic output and its potential against insect pest or disease. 

...

Muhamamd Naeem1 and Murad Khan2* 

...eptember 2010 to make an economic assessment of seasonal variations in the poultry industry. There were 400 poultry farms in district Nowshera but the preliminary survey showed 127 operational poultry farms scattered over in the study area. Out of total farms, 60 firms were selected randomly. To capture the seasonal variation and effects of different factors on seasonal fluctuations in the poultry industry, a descriptive statistic as well as OLS technique was ...

Saeed Ullah1, Muhammad Israr1*, Shakeel Ahmad2, Nafees Ahmad3 and Asif Yaseen

... of farmer and its socio-economic influences towards LD in four purposively selected union councils i.e. Toru, Ghari Kapoora, Lund Khwar, Katlang-1 of district Mardan. A total of 90 farmers were selected through proportionate simple random sampling from 857 register farmers. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire from the heads of the farming households (HH) and analysed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. It was found that maj...
Fazal Abbas1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Zunaira Akhtar1, Khalid Mehmood2, Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder3 and Umair Iqbal4
...rldwide which cause huge economic losses for the dairy and beef industry. For this study 120 clinically affected calves (n=60 cattle calves; n=60 buffalo calves) under one month of age irrespective of cause of diarrhea was selected from different livestock farms located in the outskirts of Lahore. The result showed that there was increased in packed cell volume (%) in their blood profile. The sodium and potassium concentration in ppm significantly increased (P...
Faiza Jabeen1,*, Bushra Muneer2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3
...ns in unconventional and economical substrates suitable for various industrial uses.
...
Fukuan Du1,2, Yongkai Tang1, Juhua Yu1, Shengyan Su1, Fan Yu1, Jianlin Li1, Hongxia Li1, Meiyao Wang1 and Pao Xu1,2,*
... genetic linkage map and economic performance improvement of C. nasus.
...
Aisha Khalid1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Tahir Yaqub2, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Shagufta Saeed1, Sehrish Firyal1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori3
...or the development of an economic and environment friendly mechanism for the production of thermostable cellulase. Production of cellulase was focused due to its diverse range of application in industry. In the present study, conditions were optimized for the maximal production of recombinant thermostable cellulase from Thermotoga naphthophila using BL21-CodonPlus (DE3) cells as expression host and pET28a as expression vector. Effect of various concentr...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

...ty, milk production, and economic losses to dairy farmers. It mainly occurs due to non-contagious environmental bacterial species. In Pakistan, it is the major disease of different dairy animals including bovines. However, only a little information is available about bacterial profile of the disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted to find the Etio-prevalence of bacterial species causing subclinical mastitis in a cohort of buffaloes at Khyber Pakhtunkhw...

Hafiz Umar Farid1, Muhammad Zubair2, Zahid Mahmood Khan1, Aamir Shakoor1*, Behzad Mustafa1, Aftab Ahmad Khan3, Muhamad Naveed Anjum4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Muhammad Mubeen

...encing order such as net economic return, deployment of operator, literacy status, farming mode, pumping mechanism, backup support, system type, energy source, tenancy status, farm location, groundwater quality and farming experience because these parameters have significance coefficient values of 0.471, 0.342, 0.169, 0.163, 0.142, 0.110, 0.076,0.071,0.046, -0.037, -0.116, -0.212, respectively. The analysis indicated that parameters such as farm location near ...

Muhammad Rehan1, Asim Aslam1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Muhammad Abid2, Shakeel Hussain3, Javeria Umber4, Ahsan Anjum1 and Altaf Hussain2* 

...read of NDV and also its economic impact on the commercial poultry industry of Pakistan.  

...

Muhammad Nasrullah1*, Liu Chang1, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai2, Asaad Osman Khalid1, Rachel Bayisenge1 and Gulnaz Hameed3 

...r to our expectation and economic theories. Factor affecting analysis shows that overall results of the regression are statistically significant except farm size and fertilizers used during production. The coefficients of seed are the highest among all variables which can highly affect the productivity of the growers. 

...

Muhammad Usman Ghani1*, Muti Ur Rehaman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Zubair Shabbir2, Li Bo3 and Naveed Anwar4 

...us, highly communicable, economically important viral disease of skin that affects most of animals. The purpose of current study was to establish and familiarize a precise and rapid detection approaches with molecular diagnostic tool. The method relies on periodically thermo cycling heating and cooling of DNA in presence of certain chemical reagents. In order to detect and differentiate parapox infections from those induced by pox virus. A new parapox specific...

Kubra Siddique*, Ghaffar Ali, Irfan Ullah, Atta Ullah Shah and Muhammad Fayaz 

...o; income and their socioeconomic characteristics are included in the model. The results reveal that on the average, households in rural region spend more on the food items while, urban households spend more on non-food items. Expenditures on beef is noted highest for both urban and rural region followed by chicken, fish and other meat type (Eggs, Shrimps, Prawns). Empirical results show that for all the selected meat type expenditure elasticities are positi...
Bingbing Gao1, Na Song1, Zhonglu Li2, Tianxiang Gao3 and Liqin Liu3,*
... of China with important economic and ecological value, and little of its population genetic structure has been known. We use mitochondrial DNA markers to investigate the genetic structure of the species along southern coast of China. The complete sequences of Cytochrome b (Cytb) gene of 163 individuals collected from 6 locations were obtained and used for genetic analysis. No insertion or deletion were found among 26 mutation loci and 27 haploty...
Abid Hussain Shahzad1, Abdul Sattar1,*, Nasim Ahmad1, Ijaz Ahmad2, Deniz Nak3 and Yavuz Nak3
...vital role in dairy farm economics. Primary objective of the present study was to compare the efficiency of standard Ovsych protocol (OVP0) and its modified forms (OVP5 and OVP7) as postpartum reproductive management tools in cyclic dairy cows. In total, 167 Holstein cows were randomly divided into three treatment groups. The OVP0 group was comprised of 58 cows. Other two groups, OVP5 (n=55) and OVP7 (n=54), were similar to OVP0 except the intravaginal inserti...
Bo Zhang1, Changbo Zhu1, Zihao Meng1,4, Baosuo Liu1, Lian Zhong3, Guiju Huang1, Jiaqi Su1, Sigang Fan1 and Dahui Yu1,2,*
...nctada fucata, is an economically important and carotenoid-containing bivalve shellfish that is cultured for pearls and acts as a source of seafood. To investigate the distribution of carotenoids in P. fucata and establish a more efficient method to assess carotenoid contents, we measured the carotenoid levels in selectively bred P. fucata individuals of different colors and analyzed the correlations between TCC (total carotenoid content) and...
Songhao Zhang1, Yiwen Gong1, Jian Xu1, Mou Hu2, Peng Xu3 and Yanliang Jiang1,2,4,*
...div>Purse red carp is an economic important and well-known domesticated variety of common carp in China. During a long history of domestication, purse red carp displays consumer-favored morphological traits such as red skin color and purse-shaped body form. However, the underlying genetic basis is less studied. In the present study, we utilized the powerful approach of comparative transcriptome analysis via high throughput sequencing, and examined transcriptom...

Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Sami Ullah1*, Muhammad Mohsin Raza2, Mohsin Raza1, Muhammad Abbas3, Ijaz Ahmad4, Malik Muhammad Yousaf2, Muhammad Zeshan5, Adeel Abbas1, Mehmood Ali Noor1 and Mohsin Nawaz1 

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosad, Fatema Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali Abdel Maged, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

... in Egypt causing severe economic losses and the problematic situation in poultry production especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, 1026 confirmed positive H9N2 cases by RT-PCR out of 23182 different examined samples of different species and sectors in Egypt, with a prevalence rate 4.4% by the year 2015/2016. However, the LPAI H9N2 showed a wide range distribution with high geo-prevalence rate in 2015/2016 (96.3%) as po...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

...y sectors causing severe economic losses and the problematic situation in poultry production especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, a total of 23182 cloacal and tracheal samples were collected from suspected cases between 2015 and 2016 and submitted to the Reference laboratory of veterinary quality control on poultry production (RLQP) from different poultry sectors and bird species which are distributing all over the...

Shumaila Sadiq1,2*, Abdul Saboor2, Fouzia Jamshaid3, Abdul Qayyum Mohsin2 and Azeem Khalid

...rs’ food security, economic situation and education in Pakistan. 

...

Umar Hayat1, Khalid Khan2, Saima Liaqat3* and Balach Rasheed

...variation in rainfall on economic growth in different provinces of Pakistan. Results show that low rains over the period of time have adversely affected the production, employment, and supply chain of crops. Furthermore, to avoid the adverse effects of climate change in the future, it is suggested to plant more trees and arrange different types of awareness campaign through print media and electronic media. It is also recommended to conserve water through the ...

Usman Zubair1*, Anjum Shehzad2, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi3 and Khalid Mahmood1 

...some of the most serious economic pests of fruits and vegetables around the world. The objective of this paper is to present taxonomy and new records of fruit flies. This manuscript deals with distribution records presented for species of fruit flies from Poonch Division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Taxonomic issues with specimen are discussed. The specimens were collected from seven localities including Rawalakot, Banbake, Jandali, Pakhar, Kakuta, Mandhol and B...

Wesam Mady*, Nahed Yehia, Mohammed Hassan Elhussieny, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Moataz Mohamed El Sayed, Neveen Rabie Bakry, Asmaa Shaaban, Abdel Satar Arafa, Afaf Abdel Baset Mahmoud and Wafaa Mohammed Hassan 

... Egypt, it caused severe economic losses for both the commercial and backyard poultry production sectors. The aim of this work is to study the Situation and molecular characterization of HPAIV (H5N8) in backyard poultry production sector in Egypt. In this study, a total of 7505 samples of tracheal swabs representing 1180 backyard poultry flocks were collected based on the surveillance conducted by the GOVS (General Organization for Veterinary Services), Egypt ...

Umar Hayat1*, Tariq Shah1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad

...al-led growth to promote economic stability in the country. The present study is an attempt to examine and analyse the nexus of various sub-sectors of agriculture and their contribution to agricultural growth in the country. Data on key variables such as agricultural growth, institutional credit, agro-based industries, Livestock and mechanised inputs are taken from State Bank of Pakistan, World Development Indicators Databases and various issues of
Shujjah Haider1,*, Ayesha Maqbool1, Tariq Pervez1, Saima Parveen1, Arfan Ahmad2, Zahid Iqbal3, Javed Iqbal3, Shahid Mehmood3, Amanullah Khan4 and Sajid Umar5
...y farmers and cause huge economic loss to poultry industry every year. Various pathogens can initiate respiratory diseases in poultry, including mycoplasmosis caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). The distribution pattern of MG in layer flocks is not known in Chakwal. Keeping this in mind, current study was designed to know about distribution of MG. The present study was conducted on 25 commercial layer flocks from different regions of district Chakw...
Nida Zia1, *, Ayesha Maqbool2, Muhammad Safdar3, Umm-I-Habiba1, Altaf Mehmood4, Muhammad Usman5, Zahid Iqbal6, Javed Iqbal6, Shahid Mehmood6, Amanullah Khan7 and Sajid Umar8
...ing threat, causing huge economic loss to poultry industry every year. Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) associated with HHS could disturb growth, viability and immunity in commercial broilers. The main aim of the present study was to detect and characterize FAdVs. Liver tissues were collected from poultry flocks showing clinical signs of HHS and investigated using PCR assay for FAdVs. The FAdVs were detected in 8 samples collected from different flocks. Positive PCR ...
Mujahid Niaz Akhtar* and Amjad Farooq
...m population to minimize economic losses. 
...
Asad Abdullah, Muhammad Irfan Ullah*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Afzal
...considered as one of the economically important insect pest in global agriculture. Suitability of host plants is critical for the efficient management of this economically important insect pest. We studied the effect of various host plants on the growth, development and fecundity of S. litura. The larvae of S. litura were offered leaves of cabbage, alfalfa, sesbania and, maize in comparison to artificial diet u...

Zeshan Siraj1*, Amjad Farooq1 and Zahid Mehmood2 

...n was recorded above the economic threshold level (ETL) in all three years. Jassids infestation was non-significantly correlated with temperature, relative humidity and average rainfall in all consecutive years 2011-2013. Data revealed that jassids population had a positive non-significant correlation with minimum temperature and minimum relative humidity in 2011 and 2013. A positive association of jassids with maximum temperature was observed in 2012-2013 whe...
Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Shahid Yousaf1, Salman Khurshid1*, Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar1, Saqib Arif1, Nasreen Fatima2 and Ali Murad Rahoo3
...itions that imparts huge economic and health implications when not been addressed properly. This study has been attempted to assess the quality of citrus in terms of postharvest physiological disorders and organoleptic properties in relation to the occurrence of pathogenic diseases. Fruit samples (injured and healthy) were taken from the three different local markets of Karachi. Some of the fungal species viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium...

Zara Ahmad1*, Fazli Rabbi2, Muhammad Zamin3, Bushra Kiran2, Tariq Shah2 and Shahzad Kouser4 

...d on-season) in terms of economic returns. The data on bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is considered for analysis. The primary data was collected from a sample of 110 farmers in the district of Faisal Abad, Punjab Pakistan. The data was analysed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique. The results show that there is a significant difference between the on-season and off-season application of pesticides to bitter guard crop. The results clearly reveal th...
Muhammad Saleem Hanif1, Khalid Javed Iqbal1,*, Arshad Javid3, Noor Khan2, Irfan4, Hamid Majeed5, Muhammad Altaf3
...ed to evaluate the socio-economic status of fishermen community at Rivers of Pakistan in South Punjab. Head Taunsa and Punjnad were selected as study sites to collect information from fishermen through well prepared questionnaire. It was observed fishermen in both study sites were of 20 -55 year of age having maximum family size of 7-10 individuals. Illiterate fishermen were recorded to be 50 and 40 % at head Punjnad and Taunsa, respectively. Fishermen maximum...

Abir Ishtiaq and Muhammad Naeem* 

...al in the formulation of economical feed for carps and disseminate high stocking fish culture in the region. 

...
Zia-ud-Din1, Muhammad Nauman Aftab2, Tanveer Hussain3,*, Irfana Iqbal4 and Asma Zafar5
...th, weight gain, FCR and economics varied significantly for feed supplements as well as for chicken varieties (P<0.05). The chickens given feed with probiotic (@1g/kg of feed were of more economic value than those fed on antibiotic supplemented feed and control with highest live body weight of 183.58±6.31g gaining 143.13±6.37g weight, multiplying their weight 4.56±0.17 times over the initial body weig...
Mahdi Khojastekey1, Majid Kalantar1, Jam Zaheer Ahmed2, Samiullah Khan3, Muhammad Altaf Hussain4, Rajwali Khan5 and Sayed Haidar Abbas Raza6*
...oductive performance and economic indices performance of Zandi ewes under an accelerated lambing system (3 times lambing in two years). A total of 289 ewes from 3 to 4 years old, with mean body weight of 50±5 kg and BCS range from 2.5 to 3, were randomly allocated between two experimental groups as follow:1) in control group 98 ewes were exposed to rams all year-round without any hormonal treatment.2) in treatment group 191 ewes were exposed to rams 3 t...
Ihsanullah*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Sohail Akhtar and Syed Muhammad Suhail
...ct of seasonal stress on economic traits with special emphasis on postpartum resumption of ovarian activities. Reproductive and productive records of crossbred dairy cows were analyzed at a large-scale state dairy farm from 1997 to 2013. Genetic groups consisted of HF 50.0%, HF 62.5%, HF 75.0% and HF 87.5%, having the respective levels of Holstein Friesian blood were studied in different seasons of the year. No significant differences were found between the gr...
Muhammad Usman Akhtar1,2, Abdul Qayum3, Anshan Shan1,*, Shuli Chou1, Hyeonsoo Jo4, Syed Waqas Ali Shah4 and Ishfaq Muhammad5
... be the best in terms of economics as compared to 60RDP, 50RDP, 40RDP and 30RDP diets.
...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Khalid Usman2*, Shahid Hameed Khan Khalil3, Abdul Mateen Khattak4, Muhammad Ehsan Elahi1, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik2 and Amir Hamza2
Rafiq-ur-Rehman1*, Zahoor Ahmad1, Wiqar Ahmad2, Muhammad Mansoor3 and Shah Masaud1
...ation in legume crops is economical and environmentally sound activity in crops production. Response of mungbean cultivar (Inqalab Mung) inoculated with four strains of rhizobium (TAL-634, TAL-169, NARC-BK and NARC-M) was evaluated during two consecutive years 2015 and 2016 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Rata Kulachi, Dera Ismail Khan (31º 49/ N latitude and 70º 55/ East longitude), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The current experiments were ...
Muhammad Nisar* and Muhammad Idress
...gardening has many socio-economic benefits for small farmers. Home gardening also called kitchen or homestead gardening. Home gardening study is necessary not only due to its social, food security and economic contribution, but its consideration’s negligence in development agendas. Home gardening data provide complete agricultural input in a nation’s domestic treasure. Therefore, the current study was carried out...
Muhammad Qasim1*, Said Qasim2, Muhammad Naeem1, Amir Nawaz Khan3 and Shahid Iqbal4
... decline in physical and economic assets were noted among all the three types of fishers, whereas the total value of livelihood assets for farming fishers deteriorated from 0.40 in 2001 to 0.33 in 2016. The study recommends that concerned authorities should take initiative to create awareness regarding conservation of fishes and observe strict implementation of the fishery laws and regulations.
...
Rakhshanda Kousar1, Tahira Sadaf1*, Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum2, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal1 and Raza Ullah1

Asma Hassan*, Zuhair Hasnain, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz, Muhmmad Ansar, Muhmmad Rasheed, Ajaz Ahmad, Lubna Ayub Durani and Muhmmad Bilal Ali 

...iate tillage systems are economically valuable for former depends on sufficient nutrient supply and satisfactory soil and climatic conditions. Moldboard plough (MP) (control), tine Cultivator (TC) and minimum tillage (MT) as main treatment, Crops sequence as subplot included were fallow–wheat (Triticum aestivum), (FW, control), mungbean (Vigna radiata)–wheat (MW), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)–wheat (SW), green manure–wheat (GW) and mungbea...

Abdul Razzaq1*, Muhammad Islam2, Zahra Islam3, Zahida Fatima1, Munib Hussain4 and Farmanullah5,6 

...tivity and leads to high economic losses. In most part of the world, drug resistance against anthelmintic is now very common. In this context, various alternative control programs including herbal use against these worms is also an important option. To explore the problem, three available synthetic anthelmintic (Oxfendazole alone, oxfendazole-Levamisole combination and Ivermectin) were administered to natural major nematodes (Haemonchus, Trichuris, Strongyloid...

Riaz Hussain Pasha1*, Muhammad Zubair Anjum2, Imran Ullah2, Muhammad Akram Khan3, Adnan Ali4, Saif-Ur-Rehman5, Sana Batool2 and Arslan Emmanuel

...ful in culturing of this economically important catfish in Pakistan. 

...

Aamir Saleem1, Arshad Mahmood Malik2*, Najam Ul Hassan1 and Imtiaz A. Qamar

...s it would be beneficial economically. 

...

Wajid Shah Yousafzai1, Irfan Ullah1*, Amjad Ali1, Mahmood Iqbal2 and Salman Khan1 

...ector contributes to the economic benefit of the farming community in Pakistan, therefore analyzing its potential remain major focus in various studies. Current study has been designed with main aim to estimate the allocative efficiency of onion production in District swat. Using multistage sampling technique cross sectional data was collected from 105 sample respondents in three villages (Aboha, Manyar and Parrai) of Tehsil Barikot, district Swat. Simple Line...

Muhammad Saleem1*, Ehsan Elahi1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi1, Saleem Maseeh Bhatti1, Hajra Ibrahim2 and Muhammad Ali3 

...ifferent treatments. The economical important plant growth parameters ; height of plant (cm), stem girth, diameter of flower disk (cm), quantity of achenes (head-1), weight of 1000 achenes, oil (%) in achene, yield (ha-1), and sulphur content (%) in plant straw were evaluated. The values among the treatments for higher plant height (161.80 cm), wide stem girth (4.80 cm), flower head diameter (15.40 cm), maximum number of achene head-1 (787), weight of 1000 ach...

Umar Hayat1*, Shahid Ali1, Abdul Mateen2 and Hazrat Bilal

...undamental postulates of economic development in developing and emerging economies is the alleviation of poverty through agricultural led growth. Pakistan being an agrarian in nature is striving its best to fight against poverty, unemployment and unequal income distribution. Although, Agricultural growth is considered an important instrument for alleviation in poverty, but still its proper measurement is scarce in studies. To examine and analyze the nexus betw...

Khaled Kaboudi* 

... flocks causes important economic losses, related to high mortality, decrease in animal performance and aggravation of infection by other pathogens. Although H9N2 is endemic in many regions of the world, such as Middle East and North Africa, where the first outbreaks were described since the end of 1990s, many features about epidemiology and genetic characteristics are still little known. This review summarized the epidemiological situation of H9N2 subtype in ...

Ankur Abrol, Madhumeet Singh, Akshay Sharma* and Pravesh Kumar 

...erable impact on farmers economically. From a clinical frame of reference, the etiology of dystocia is either of maternal or fetal origin although the exact etiology is multifaceted. Uterine torsion is considered as one of major contributors among the maternal causes. This condition exerts considerable stress on the animal and if not treated promptly, it can lead to deterioration of liver and kidney functions resulting in toxaemia followed by dam as well as fe...

Turab Ali Kaurajo1*, Huma Rizwana1, Gulbahar Khaskheli2, Muhammad Haroon Baloch1, Muhammad Naeem Rajput1, Asad Ali Khaskheli3 and Mohsin Solangi

...management practices and economic importance of the camels at district Khairpur Mir’s, Sindh during the year of 2017. A total of sixty camel herders were selected during the survey and interviewed using comprehensive Questionnaire. Survey indicated that the Sakrai breed is prominent in number followed by Dhatti, Larri/Sindhi. Camel herders were almost uneducated except small proportions that were primary passed. Among the land holders, each sedentary and...

Imran1*, Amanullah1, Muhammad Arif1, Zahir Shah2 and Abdul Bari3 

...miting factor to various economically important agricultural crops including cereal, oil seed, legumes and cash crops. Minimizing pest losses in addition to better crop management is a way toward narrowing the yield gap and ensuring food security. The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of peach (Prunus persica L.) residues and soil application of Trichoderma (soft-rot fungi) along with seed inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (P...
Zekeriya Demir1 and Hatice Kaya2*
...n addition, according to economic analysis, the net income for hen fed 1.5% BP addition dietincreased by about 0.62% compared to control group. Therefore, bee pollen may be used in laying hen diets because of its psitive effects on FCR, serum cholesterol and lipid contents.

 

...
Ammara Blouch1, Ata ul Mohsin2, Muhammad Naeem2 and Rashid Mahmood1*
... for chemical control of economically damaging insect pests like leaf worm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius. In this study, two commercial products including Dipel with Bt sub speciess kurstaki and Turex with Bt sub speciess kurstaki and aizawai were tested against three early larval instars of S. litura under laboratory conditions using leaf dip method. Mortality was recorded after three and seven days of ex...
Umm-i-Habiba1,*, Ayesha Maqbool2, Muhammad Safdar3, Nida Zia1Altaf Mehmood4, Muhammad Usman5, Mehwish Sharif6, Amanullah Khan7 and Sajid Umar8
... bursal disease (IBD) is economically important disease causing great losses to poultry industry worldwide. Field outbreaks of IBD in 18 different poultry farms in the Chakwal district were confirmed by clinicopathologic examination and PCR. A total of 6 isolates of IBDV from these outbreaks were genetically characterized based on hyper-variable region of the VP2 gene. IBDV strains were grouped into two distinct clusters on the basis of nucleotide sequences of...
Romaan Hayat Khattak1,3, Hussain Ali1, Ejaz Ur Rehman1 and 
Muhammad Ali Nawaz1, 2*
...re harvested to generate economic revenues for poor mountain communities, which in turn protects the entire population and associated ecosystem from illegal massive hunting. The present study successfully tested CMR method, and produced reliable and accurate estimate of the population, which could help in determining sustainable trophy quota.
...

Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz*, Khalil Ahmed, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Faisal Nawaz and Muhammad Sarfraz 

...owing documented maximum economic benefit as compared to other treatments and is suggested as most cost-effective technique for turnip production under moderately salt-affected soils. 

...
Ibrahim Tapki1*, Huseyin Bahadir Ozalpaydin2, Nuran Tapki3, Mehmet Aslan4 and Muhammet Hanifi Selvi1
... weaning age; increasing economic efficiency; promoting calf growth as well as for improving blood parameters and general health status of Holstein Friesian calves. Twenty-eight Holstein Friesian calves were allocated into three groups: (a) Control calves were fed with whole milk (n=10), (b) OreganoLow (n=9), and (c) OreganoHigh (n=9) calves were fed with whole milk, plus 100 and 150 mg/l oregano essential oil per kg milk respectively. The amount of the milk o...

Naglaa M. Hagag1*, Mervat E. Hamdy1, Mary A. Sargious1, Sara M. Elnomrosy1, Nahed A. Ahmed1, Ayman A. Hamed1, Ahmed R. Habashi1, Essam I. Ibrahiem1, Mahmoud A. Abdel-Hakim2 and Momtaz A. Shahein

..., highly contagious, and economically devastating viral disease worldwide. FMDV affects animals with cloven hooves, including domestic and wild bovids. In this study, 100 FMDV field samples were collected in 2018 and early2019 from governorates in Egypt. Molecular and genetic characterization indicates that serotype SAT2 is widespread (in 96 cases), while only four cases of Serotype O were detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the study sequences indicates that t...
Nurlybay Kazhgaliyev1*, Talgat Kulmagambetov2, Dulat Ibrayev1, Saule Bostanova1 and Zhanat Titanov1
...e here the rationale and economics of adaptation of Aberdeen Angus and Hereford beef-producing animals brought from Canada and the Netherlands to Northern Kazakhstan. In order to investigate common zootechnic methods, daughters of imported Aberdeen Angus and Hereford cows were grouped at the age of 18-19 months with a live weight of no less than 350 kg. Groups were constituted using the analogue-pairs method and consisted of 30 cattle/group. Observations durin...
Monica Paula Marin1, Elena Narcisa Pogurschi1*, Iuliana Marin2 and Carmen Georgeta Nicolae1
...n to be an efficient and economic solution. Starting from the fact that natural zeolites are recognized as having beneficial effects on the animal organism, being detoxifiers, immunomodulators, regulators of the internal pH, we studied the effect of using volcanic stuff as a food additive in dairy cows during the precalving, postcalving periods and in the first part of lactation. Experiments were carried out on 90 Holstein–Friesian cows, divided into 3 h...
Ahsan Anjum1, Asim Aslam1, Raheela Akhtar1, Tahir Yaqub2,  Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Rizwana Sultan3, Saba Usman1Aneela Zameer Durrani4 and Muhammad Usman4*
...roduction and associated economics, warrants the implementation of control measures to mitigate the economic losses associated with the disease.
...

Muhammad Bakhtiar Khan1 and Jangraiz Khan2* 

... this research study the economic analysis of Tunnel farming of off-season vegetables has been done for district Peshawar. Primary data was collected from eighty-four farmers who had grown off-season vegetables through tunnel-farming, and seasonal vegetables without tunnel and their productivity were compared. It was found that output per acre in tunnel was significantly higher than that of without tunnel. All the three vegetables viz tomato, cucumber and bott...
Yanyan Yu1,2,3, Yizhong Hu1, Qipeng Zhang1, Rongquan Zheng1,4,*, Bing Shen1, Shenshen Kong1 and Ke Li1
...recommendations for this economically important but threatened animal.
...

Muhammad Ramiz Murtaza1, Tahir Mehmood2*, Aziz Ahmad2 and Uzma Arshad Mughal3 

...ch was done to check the economics of mango production with and without intercropping and determined various factors that affect mango production in Muzaffar Garh. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 110 mango growers from 4 union councils of tehsil Ali Pur. To scrutinize the data double log model was renovated from Cobb-Dougles production function. Results showed that Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) with and without intercropping was 1.72 and 2.48 re...

Saleem Ashraf1, Raheel Saqib2*, Zakaria Yousuf Hassan3, Muhammad Luqman4 and Abdur Rehman5  

...oods uplift and national economic development. However, the marketing system is criticised for inconsistent supply chain of citrus in Pakistan. This research aimed to bridge the research gap by soliciting intermediaries’ role in the citrus marketing process. Total 120 randomly selected citrus growers were interviewed face to face and collected data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings affirmed that middleman, processing f...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2*Mubasher Ahmad Malik1, Mujahid Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir2,  Zubair Aslam4, Sumaira Maqsood5, Ishita Ahuja3 and Atle M. Bones3

Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehman2*, Farhana Khaliq1, Amar Razzaq3, Mudassar Yasin4, Ghulam Mustafa5, Allah Bakhsh6 and Raheel Saqib7 

...impact of different macroeconomic variables on basmati export competitiveness panel data set is used following Park’s Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS). According to the results of the study about the impact of macroeconomic variable on basmati competitiveness, inflation has negative and significant effect on export competitiveness of Pakistani basmati. Inflation in trading partner has positive and significant e...

Tanweer Ahmed1*, Kashif Saeed Khan1, Zilakat Khan Malik1, Fazal Wahid1 and Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal2 

...ct of public spending on economic growth in Pakistan. Various econometric techniques have been applied to estimate the relationship among public spending on education, health, road length, defence, trade openness, worker remittances, total cropped area and economic growth. Pakistan’ economic growth rate fluctuated from 1972 to 2014. During this period for some years, the

Mudassar Rashid1, Zuhair Husnain2, Usman Shakoor1* and Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain

Amna Qazi1, Ghulam Shah Nizamani2*, Muhammad Tahir Khan2, Shafquat Yasmeen2, Shahla Karim Baloch1, Muharram Ali1, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2, Sagheer Ahmad3, Muhammad Rashid Nizamani4 and Mohammad Aquil Siddiqui

...the phenomenon paramount economic importance. 

...
Jiantong Feng, Xueping Wen, Yahong Guo, Yingying Ye*, Jiji Li and Baoying Guo
...> is an ecologically and economically important species in the coastal regions of China. In order to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of M. lamarckii, a 750 bp region of mitochondrial COIII gene and an 822 bp region of 12S rRNA gene were sequenced and analyzed for 118 and 105 individuals from five populations (ZS, WZ, ZP, ST and ZJ) in the Southeast coastal areas of China, respectively. Results revealed that 33 haplotypes were...
Housh Muhammad Solangi1, Javaid Ali Gadahi1*, Mansoor Tariq2, Bachal Bhutto1Zubair Ahmed Laghari1, Jamila Soomro3, Taufeeq Ahhmed Khosa1 and Abdullah G Arijo1
... ruminants producing the economic losses. The present study was conducted to explore the immunogenic properties of H. contortus crude proteins (HcCP). Protein profile of HcCP was checked by SDS PAGE and immunogenic proteins were recognized by the antisera produced by using the HcCP as antigen. Infective stage of the H. contortus (L3) was used for the challenge infection. Protein band pattern ranging from 10 to 170 kDa was observed and protein ban...
Muhammad Waseem, Tariq Mahmood*, Abid Hussain, Abdul Hamid, Faraz Akrim, Shaista Andleeb and Hira Fatima
...ta on its population and economic losses are scanty in the country. We investigated its occurrence, population and human conflict in Mansehra District during 2016-2017. A total of 66 indirect signs of Asiatic black bear were recorded with an altitudinal variation of habitat ranging from 1511m to 2570m elevation including 17 dens and 44 scats of the bear from 10 different sampling sites. The sign density of black bear ranged between 17/km² (Paris MRF site)...
Asim Faraz*
...weight gain was less and economical in the former as compared to the latter group. In behavioral preference the first in order was kari (Capparis spinosa), dhaman (Cenchrus ciliaris) and kikar (Acacia nilotica) among bushes, grasses and trees, respectively for male and female calves in EMS.
...

Ihsanullah Kakr1, Sarwar Khan2, Khalid Khan3* and Sajjad Ahmed

...s diseases in camels and economic losses were collected. A total of one thousand and forty (n=1040) camel owners/respondents from three groups viz settled, transhumants and nomads were interviewed in Districts, Musa Khail and Jhal Magsi during the year 2011. The direct as well as indirect economic losses due to camel Trypanosomiasis based on the prevalence of Trypanosomiasis, mortality rate, abortion and perceptions of the r...

Bahadar Sher Khattak1, Muhammad Kaleem1, Waqas2*, Humaira Naz1 and Muhammad Yasir

...ed at uplifting the socioeconomic conditions of the small farmers through various agricultural interventions. One of the important and essential interventions of CMP was micro-credit facilities to small farmers. The current research study focused on the core objective of the CMP aimed at finding out the effect of micro-credit intervention on small farmers and how their socioeconomic status improved during the span of the pro...
Naseeb Ullah1, Assad Ur Rehman1, Aamir Khan1, Rabia Noushin2Shahid Naiz Khan1, Syed Ishtiaq Anjum1, Sajida Afzal1, Asma Naseem1Kenza Javed1, Ujala Rauf1 and Kalim Ullah1*
...ad in Pakistan with huge economic losses. The chief objective of the study was to estimate the sero-prevalence of FMD in livestock in district Lakki Marwat, southern part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Pakistan. 376 blood samples were randomly collected from livestock (large and small ruminants) from December 2017 to April 2018 to examine the prevalence of FMD. The current study indicated that overall FMD in Livestock was 14.31% with 16.37% in small ruminants and ...

Muhammad1*, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Syed Akhtar Ali Shah1 

...We also found that socio-economic variables namely education, monthly expenses, and agriculture farm size positively affect farmers’ WTP for organic fertilizer. Conversely, households’ size and land tenure of the farmer has a negative influence on farmers’ WTP. An Integrated Resource Recovery Centre (IRRC) is needed for green waste management to change the current paradigm by transforming the waste into a valuable resource. The application of...

Saeed Ahmed Shah Chishti1, Saba Aleem1*, Iram Sharif2, Kashif Nadeem1, Nusrat Parveen1 and Muhammad Najeebullah1 

...ed as a tool for getting economical tomato yield when night temperature falls below 10˚C. 

...
Daniel Kerr Baines
...ly but also socially and economically.
...

Amjad Ali1*, Lal Almas2, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Hina Fatima3 and Asim Khan1  

...ts utilization and socio-economic characteristics of selected sample of sugarcane growers. Using Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA), mean technical efficiency of sugarcane crop in KP was around 70 percent ranging from minimum 53 to maximum possible efficient level of 98 percent. Results of study indicate that on average with same technology and resource base, yield of sugarcane can be increased by about 28% in order to reach the efficient fellow growers of sug...

Muhammad Shakeel1,2*, Salik Nawaz2, Yasar Saleem3, Shazia Shafique2, Ateeq Tahir2 and Muhammad Riaz2

...gned to understand socio-economic and agronomic constraints associated with adoption of broccoli in Pakistan. Growers and other stakeholders were contacted by personal visits, telephone calls and distribution of the structured questionnaire. Information was collected from Punjab, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa (KPK) provinces, Kashmir and Islamabad. A total of 167 farmers and amateurs growers, engaged in the cultivation of high value or medicinal crops were ...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Riyasat Sultan 

... environmental and socio-economic conditions. The system and schedule devised by the local population is based on indigenous knowledge and is for the better management of forests, grasses and agriculture resources. According to field survey, availability of fodder (grasses) at the pastures, ban on cutting of grasses and grazing in the village, management of land at pastures, refuge from scorching heat of summer are the major causes of seasonal migration. There...

Mubashir Mehdi1*, Muhammad Bilal Ahsan1, Burhan Ahmad1, Khuram Nawaz Sadozai2, Gulnaaz Hameed3 and Muhammad Asif4 

... as dummy variable under economic context of decent work to assess its regressing level with income and was reported as significant. The study concludes that social upgrading of workers has implications and potential for economic upgrading of value chain system in terms of premium quality products, decent employment conditions and improved income. 

...

Cornelius Arome Omatola*, Samson Daniel Iyeh, Shedrach James Abuh, Charles Kehinde Mofolorunsho, Martin-Luther Oseni Okolo and Phoebe Queen Akoh 

...highlight a concern with economic consequences. Hence intervention programs including comprehensive screening of pregnant women with increased access to health care and treatment of confirmed cases at an affordable cost should be promoted to reduce STIs thereby reducing associated morbidities and mortalities.  

...

Gulnaz Hameed1, Abdul Saboor1, Khuram Nawaz Sadozai2*, Ghaffar Ali2, Dawood Jan2 and Mansoor Rasheed

...on of women in different economic activities plays an important role in poverty reduction so the policies which are gender friendly can be highly advantageous particularly in the distant regions. Local communities may be involved and private sector should also be invited by foundation of mutual social conscientiousness to improve education related infrastructure. 

...

Faisal Hafeez, Asad Aslam*, Ayesha Iftikhar, Afifa Naeem, Muhammad Faheem Akhtar and Muhammad Jawad Saleem 

...te. In addition to this, economic analysis of both years exhibited the similar descending order/trend in benefit cost ratio (BCR) as above. So the conservative strategies of using non-selective and conventional insecticides for the control of sucking fauna, especially against jassid, must be transformed / amended to most selective insect growth regulators (IGR’s) and new chemistry insecticides, that are safe and harmless for nature and environment. ...

Fazal Haq*, Asia Parveen, Safdar Hussain and Arshad Hussain 

...es has a key role in the economic development of any area. The main problem in agriculture is, making decision for optimum selection of activities. Keeping in view such critical issues; this research study is conducted in District Hunza with the aim to explore the most beneficial cropping pattern for the three major crops wheat, potato and alfalfa grown in the study area and to maximize the net profit per year. The research study deals with statistical facts a...

Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehman2*, Iftikhar Nabi3, Amar Razzaq4, Raheel Saqib5, Allah Bakhsh6, Muhammad Mohibullah7 and Muhammad Luqman

...o 2016. Independent macroeconomics variables used in the study are exchange rate of Pakistan, exchange rates of trading partner, inflation in Pakistan, inflation in trading partner and dummy variables joint border and religion by application of Park’s Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS). Result of this study showed that exchange rate of Pakistan has negative and significant effect on basmati export but exchange rate of trading partner has positive a...
Muhammad Anwarullah1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Ghulam Mustafa3, Muhammad Husnain1 and Muhammad Usman1
...’s disease has its economic importance worldwide because of heavy treatment cost and poor outcomes. This study is conducted on experimentally challenged rabbits to observe the efficacy of amikacin and cinnamon. A total of 40 SPF (specific pathogen free) rabbits were selected at the age of two months. Rabbits were given experimental challenge with oral inoculum of pure culture of MAP. These rabbits were divided into four groups; three test and one control...

Filza Fatima Rizvi1, Muhammad Umair1, Muhammad Kahlid Jamil2*, Masooma Hassan2, Komal Qayyum1 and Syed Mohsin Raza Kazmi

...gy is a key indicator of economic development, living standards and generation of wealth of any country. Globally, energy generation scenario is shifting towards renewable sources and its application in different sectors for example Agriculture. Oil, gas and coal. The same is true for Pakistan that has agriculture based economy. The present study was undertaken to review energy consumption in the agriculture sector of Pothohar region of Pakistan. This region h...

Md. Zubael Islam, Rukhsana Amin Runa and Md. Mahmudul Alam* 

...a considerable amount of economic loss. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of foot diseases in cattle and also to explore the risk factors having a promoting role in developing foot affections in three unions (Potazia, Jalalpur, and Kaijuri) of Shahjadpur Upazila. Foot affections were physically investigated and examined from May to October 2019 and a total of 257 surgical affections were recorded, among them 46 cattle were diagnosed as diff...

Noor Islam1*, Rashid Mahmood1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Sarfaraz Ahmad2 and Saleem Abid

...er Diet 2 gave a maximum economic return followed by Diet 4, Diet 1 and Diet 3, respectively. It is thus recommended that Diet 2 should be feed to A. mellifera colonies for commercial production of honey. 

...

Wajiha Anum1*, Liaquat Ali1, Umair Riaz2*, Abid Ali1, Nadia Manzoor3, Laal Hussain Akhter4, Asad Ur Rahman5, Naeem Maan6 and Ijaz Ahmad

...ic P use efficiency, and economic analysis. The results revealed that the band placement method gave the highest yield in comparison to the broadcast at sowing and broadcast at first irrigation. The best P fertilizer rate was identified as 150-120-60 NPK kg/ha. It has been recommended that wheat, when sown under band placement @ 120 kg/ha, gave maximum grain yield. 

...

Muhammad Rasheed1*, Zafar Ullah1, Muhammad Ansar1, Asma Hassan1, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz2, Muhammad Hussain Shah4 and Muhammad Arshadullah

...yield was optimistic. In economic analysis MT depicted the highest net benefit per hectare over both other tillage systems that are conventional and zero-tillage with values of 632.87 $ ha-1 and Rs.152.22 $ ha-1, respectively for oats and vetch. Forage growth and yield were improved for oats in oats-vetch mixture under minimum tillage while vetch performed well in crops mixture stands. Forage yield improved by oats-vetch mixture improved agronomic practices. M...

Rana Shahzad Noor1,2*, Fiaz Hussain2, Muhammad Umair2, Waqas Aslam2, Muhammad Ameen4, Muhammad Adnan Islam3 and Muhammad Sheraz2 

 

...nsumption and to perform economic analysis. Two years study results showed that the main crop peanut yields changed between 4331.0 kg ha-1 and 5486.6 kg ha-1, while second crop peanut yields changed between 2670.6 kg ha-1 and 3388.8 kg ha-1. The highest yield for main crop and crop peanut under different tillage methods was 2097.8 kg ha-1, while the lowest yield was observed as 1649.9 kg ha-1 respectively. The fuel consumption of main crop was measured between...

K. Osei1† , A. I. Adama1 , E. C. Tagoe2 and J. Sackey-Asante1

 

Biochar effect on nematodes and insects population density, soil improvement and yield of okra
...ulentus L. Moench) is an economically valuable crop in Ghana for its culinary significance and income generation potential. Agricultural production worldwide is constrained by abiotic and biotic factors. Chemical fertilizers are usually used to solve soil infertility problems. However, chemical fertilizers are expensive and when applied continuously, degrade agricultural lands (Savci, 2012; Bhattacharyya et al., 2015). Biotic factors such as plant parasitic ne...

 M. Ihsan Ul Haq1, Ahmad Hussain2*, Farzana Yasmeen3, Shafiq R. Qureshi4

LIFE CYCLE COSTING AND PAYBACK PERIOD EVALUATION OF A SOLAR THERMAL DESALINATION SYSTEM
...echnologies
cause economic and environmental problems due to their dependency upon fossil fuels. Solar flash desalination
is one of the best desalination techniques in the developing stages. Solar energy, passive vacuum and recovery of
latent heat of condensation make this system a sustainable option for desalination. In this paper, economic analysis
of the solar thermal desalination system of sal...

Waqas, A. Imtiaz1, Yousaf Khan1, Syed Waqar Shah2 

COST VERSUS RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF NEW TREE-BASED HYBRID PROTECTION ARCHITECTURE FOR OPTICAL CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS SYSTEM
... imperative to design an economical system
that should be able to provide fault detection and restoration at both feeder and the distribution level. This paper
focuses on design and analysis of a novel tree-based hybrid protection architecture for OCDMA system in order to
make it economical and reliable for deployment at the access domain. It is observed that the proposed protection
architecture p...

Shabana Rafique1, Shahnaz Parveen Khattak1, Tanveer Hussain2, Faiza Tauqeer1, Bashir Ahmad3 

EVALUATION OF FLEXURAL RIGIDITY AND ABRASION RESISTANCE OF POST AND META-FINISHED PIGMENT DYED P/C FABRICS
...d pigment dyeing is more economical than conventional method, since, more
energy can be conserved by using same machinery for dyeing, finishing, drying and curing. Furthermore, elimination
of post wash treatment in this method caused little or no contamination. Despite its manifold advantages, the rubbing
fastness and fabric stiffness of pigment dyed fabrics in deeper shades is doubtful, hence needed further exploration.
The effect ...

Suhaib*, Shahid Maqsood*, Sikandar Bilal Khattak*, Misbah Ullah*, Rehman Akhtar*, Rashid Nawaz*, Iftikhar Hussain*, Abdul Shakoor**, Khizar Azam** 

SINGLE FACILITY LOCATION SELECTIONPROBLEM FOR A PAKISTAN BASED ICE CREAM COMPANY: A CASE STUDY
...ptimization problems are economically justifiable and play a critical role in reducing the overall
running cost. An optimal facility location is directly proportional to traveling cost between facility and destinations. In
past decade, extensive research has beencarried out in this field. Most of the facility location optimization techniques
provide optimum or near optimumsolution. In this paper, an optimization technique median method is ...

Muhammad Shahid1, Adiqa Kiani2* and Mahmood Shah3

Livestock Tackles the Major Sector Fluctuations in Agrarian Sector and Raises Economic Performance: A Study of Pakistan
... in raising the level of economic performance. The study reveals implications of livestock in tackling seasonal fluctuations, inputs shocks and failure of crops in major sector by taking time series data from 1984 to 2017. Auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL) econometric technique was applied to conclude empirical results. Further, cumulative sum (CUSUM) and CUSUM square test was used to check the stability and structural breaks of the model. The results of...

Muhammad Shahid1, Adiqa Kiani2* and Mahmood Shah3

Livestock Tackles the Major Sector Fluctuations in Agrarian Sector and Raises Economic Performance: A Study of Pakistan
... in raising the level of economic performance. The study reveals implications of livestock in tackling seasonal fluctuations, inputs shocks and failure of crops in major sector by taking time series data from 1984 to 2017. Auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL) econometric technique was applied to conclude empirical results. Further, cumulative sum (CUSUM) and CUSUM square test was used to check the stability and structural breaks of the model. The results of...

Azra1*, Muhammad Afzal2 and Dilawar Khan1

Factors Influencing Inflation and Economic Growth in Pakistan: An Econometric Analysis
...igation of inflation and economic growth in Pakistan for the period 1990-2017. Money supply, imports, exchange rate and budget deficit were the major causes of inflation. Growth in GDP is expected to lead to a reduction in inflation. To combat inflation, unwarranted growth of money supply is checked and the exchange is stabilized. It is less likely that imports are reduced to lessen inflation due to economy needs. It appears difficult that GOP succeeds in curt...

Muhammad Naveed Anjum1, Abdur Rehman1*, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan1, Raheel Saqib2, Mohammad Fayaz3 and Iqbal Javed4

Impact of Microfinance on Socioeconomic Status of Farmers in District Dera Ismail Khan
...microfinance on the socioeconomic status such as, family income, family health status, children educational status, living standard, food/diet pattern, crop production and transportation and finally the constraints faced by the borrowers to get the loans from microfinance institutions. The primary data were collected from the 300 borrowers of microfinance institutions especially from Khushhali Bank limited through a well-designed structured questionnaire. The ...

 Syed Asif Ali Shah*, Iftikhar Hussain*

PERFORMANCE OF THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR OF PAKISTAN AND ITS COMPETITIVENESS CAUSE AND REMEDY
...great importance for the economic development of every country. In Pakistan the contribution to GDP of the manufacturing sector over the past three decades has not grown measurably. A vibrant manufacturing sector entails a move from static to high productivity activities, and will contribute towards GDP growth as well as generating employment. This paper reviews the performance of Pakistan’s manufacturing sector and highlights its importance in

Muhammad Irfan*, Saeed Gul*, Mohammad Younas*

SOLAR STILL PERFORMANCE FOR SEA WATER PURIFICATION: A STATISTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
...bsp;been proved to be an economical alternative renewable energy used to extract the fresh water from sea water. The principle objective of the study is to purify the sea water by using solar energy. A pilot scale solar still has been designed, fabricated and optimized for maximum evaporation rate of model sea water. The various parameters such as water depth in still, average day temperature and average water temperature in still were stud...

 Amjad Ali*, Amir Nawaz Khan*, Atta-ur-Rahman*, Muhammad Saeed*

ANALYSIS OF SITE, SITUATION AND THEIR IMPACT ON RESETTLEMENT OF PROPOSED NEW BALAKOT TOWN, PAKISTAN: AN EX POST EVALUATION OF 2005 KASHMIR EARTHQUAKE
...h is measured in term of economic base. The potential basic and non-basic activities structure is analysed for the study of economic base of new Balakot town. The basic activities infrastructure is not attractive for the residents of the Balakot town as there are least business and other employment opportunities. It was found that initially the property business and high level of non-basic activities and ...

Fazli Rabbi1*, Muhammad Idrees2, Shahid Ali1, Muhammad Zamin3 and Hazrat Bilal4

Farmers Perceptions and Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Production and Marketing
... and farmers’ socioeconomic and farm level variables. A sample of 70 peach (P. persica L.) growers was taken. Face to face interviews were held using a well-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and χ2 tests were used for data analysis. The results showed a greater awareness level among the peach (P. persica L.) growers about ICTs. Moreover, the analysis indicated that more than 75 % of farmers are in use of a single or multiple type of IC...

Sajad Ali1*, Jangraiz Khan2, Arshadullah Jadoon3, Muhammad Riaz4 and Abid Khan1

Evaluation of Farmers Socioeconomic Characteristics Influencing Tomato Output in District Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...rops in the world. It is economically attractive to farmers, due to its short duration for ripping which increases productivity. Thus, it is becoming an indispensable source of farmer’s income in Pakistan. The production of tomato has been decreased considerably during the last five years. The present study has been conducted to explore the farmer’s socio-economic characteristics, affecting the tomato production ...
Sitara Nawaz1, Shamaila Irum1, Haroon Ahmed2, Shazia Shamas1, Sadia Roshan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi4, Irfan Ullah5*, Gulnaz Parveen3*
...ck of awareness low socioeconomic level, presence of domestic animals in surroundings, poor hygienic conditions and lack of proper medical care. A public awareness and vaccination program is needed to control the spread factors. There should be an eradicated for breeding sites by keeping the surrounding clean. 

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...help in addressing socio-economic challenges. An integrated farming system (IFS) holds a special position with the central concept that nothing is supposed to be wasted here. It is an integrated approach to farming compared with existing monoculture approach. It passes on to an agricultural system that integrates crop production and livestock. IFS helps small scale farmers to increase cash income, improve quality and quantity of food produced by methodical exp...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...help in addressing socio-economic challenges. An integrated farming system (IFS) holds a special position with the central concept that nothing is supposed to be wasted here. It is an integrated approach to farming compared with existing monoculture approach. It passes on to an agricultural system that integrates crop production and livestock. IFS helps small scale farmers to increase cash income, improve quality and quantity of food produced by methodical exp...

Saba Iqbal1*, Muhammad Luqman1, Hafiz Muhammad Nasrullah1, Asmat Ullah1 and Hafiz Muhammad Akram2

Response of Cotton to Application of Organic and Inorganic Source of Nutrients in Semi-Arid Climate
...dly, carbon smart and an economical approach to get maximum output in existing agricultural production systems. Unselective use of organic manures is often used in the agriculture to improve soil health but it cannot significantly increase yield. Application of organic and inorganic source of nutrients can uplift the economics of existing cotton based production systems by improving soil health and reducing the cost of inorg...
Naeem Ejaz*, Daulat Khan**, Usman Ali Naeem*, Muhammad Ali Shamim*, Usman Ghani* and Muhammad Fiaz Tahir*
INVESTIGATION TO CHECK THE FEASIBILITY OF COMPOSTING FOR SMALL CITIES IN DEVELOPING WORLD: A CASE STUDY OF TAXILA CITY
...e a more sustainable and economical solution when compared to sanitary land filling. The research findings indicated that biodegradable communal solid waste composition in small cities of developing world is suitable for composting that could help to minimize the harmful environmental impacts on life from open dumping and sanitary land filling of municipal wastes.
...

Behram Khan1, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Said Qasim3, Atta-ur Rahman4

ANALYSIS OF HUMAN PERCEPTIONS AND ADAPTATIONS TO FLASH FLOODS IN KHYBER AGENCY, FATA
...ons and concern on socio-economic factors rather than adjustments to frequent flash flood.

...

 Uzma Nawaz1*, Muhammad Iftikhar Khan1, Muhammad Naeem Arbab1

TECHNO-ECONOMICS OF UPS SYSTEM AS BACKUP POWER SOURCE DURING LOAD SHEDDING
...e, several technical and economic issues due to their use have not been addressed. The main component of UPS system is the battery, which is costly and has to be replaced after its useful service life. Failure to do so, the cost of utility bills increases since batteries operate charge at low efficiency, and have undesirable impact on consumer loads. In this work a survey highlighting the technical and economic

 Sikandar Bilal Khattak1*, and Iftikhar Hussain1

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENT CONSCIENCE CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN USING SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO
... of soil, which has some economic benefits or factors such as clean water, which are client requirements, are mostly considered, whereas factors such as recyclable products, renewable energy, and carbon emissions are least considered.

...

 Riaz Sayed1, Khizar Azam1, Waqar Shah1, Inayat Babar1, Hamidullah1, and Sahar Noor1

A REVIEW OF DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF FATIGUE
...timates, the annual economic cost of highway crashes over rupees one hundred billion (over US$ 1.6 billion) for Pakistan. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the previous literature regarding driver fatigue and drowsiness research, the present state of research and the future trends. Various factors that may contribute to driver fatigue and drowsiness, Fatigue related countermeasures from various sources along with their merits ar...

 Iftikhar Ahmad1, Sahar Noor1

CHARACTERIZATION OF CERAMICS WALL TILES USING LOCAL TALC AS A FLUXING AGENT
...n addition talc's use is economical because of its cheaper cost than other fluxes like feldspar and lime stone.
...

 Laiq Khan1, Sidra Mumtaz2, Kamran Javed3, S.W. Shah4, M.I. Khan Babar5, S.R. Akbar6

GENERATORS MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING USING HARMONY SEARCH ALGORITHM
...ficant role for the economical and reliable operation of a power production system. This paper presents the application of harmony search (HS) algorithm for solving generators maintenance scheduling problem. HS algorithm is quite efficient, because, the convergence rate of this algorithm is very fast. HS algorithm is based on the concept of music improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. To verify the great power&nb...

 Usman Ali Naeem*, Hashim Nisar*, Habib-ur-Rehman** and Naeem Ejaz*

DEVELOPMENT OF FLOOD DISCHARGE MODELS USING GIS
...ndus River and its socio economic implication on Pakistan it was planned to carry out research work on upstream of Terbela from Kachura. The intended approaches of this work were to generate empirical equations based on hydrologic model on a particular reach of the river i.e. from Kachura to Tarbela reservoir and by utilizing Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing means. Also the watershed analysis of the upstream of Indus r...

Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh1,2*, Mohammad Tufazzal Hussan3, Md. Abul Hashem2,4, Mohammad Eliyas5 and A.K.M. Mostafa Anower1

Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Infection: An Emerging Threat to Cattle Health in Bangladesh
... a highly infectious and economically important transboundary disease of cattle caused by LSD virus (LSDV). LSD is characterized by fever and the appearance of nodular lesions in the skin covering all parts of the body. LSD is currently endemic in many African countries and causing significant economic losses. LSD has recently spread out of Africa into the Middle East region, and still continuing to spread other territories ...

Matiullah Khan1*, Humera Arif2, Muhammad Rasheed2, Motsim Billah3 and Shoaib Ahmad

...ldania RP has a good and economical potential for SSP preparation. 

...

Oluwatoyin Olagunju1* and Luqman Abiodun Akinbile2

Farmers Perceptions of the Effect of Rural Transportation Systems on Farming Income in Ondo State, Nigeria
...are crucial to the socio-economic development of the rural population. Nonetheless, in Nigeria, the state of rural roads is pitiable, as the development, enhancement and provision of more rural transport systems could be a panacea for the prolonged deplorable and worsening state of rural roads in the country. This study examined the perceived effects of rural transportation systems on farmers’ income in Ondo State, Nigeria. A structured interview was use...

Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1, Khalil Ahmed1*, Ghulam Qadir1, Amar Iqbal Saqib1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Muhammad Faisal Nawaz1 and Imtiaz Ahmad Warraich2

Impact of Fertilizer and Planting Geometery on Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Yield in Saline-Sodic Soil
...d attributes with higher economic returns, therefor, under saline-sodic conditions it is proposed as a most cost-effective management practice for garlic cultivation.

...

Amir Afzal, Muhammad Ijaz and Sayed Rashad Ali Shah*

Determination of Suitable Growth Stage for Application of Fungicide against Stripe Rust in Wheat
...rone to disease and is uneconomical otherwise. However, fungicidal spray at heading stage did not boost yield significantly and ineffective from economic point of view.

...

Khalil Ahmed1*, Amar Iqbal Saqib1, Abdul Rasul Naseem1, Ghulam Qadir1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1, Muhammad Khalid2, Imtiaz Ahmad Warraich3 and Muhammad Arif4

Use of Hyacinth Compost in Salt-Affected Soils
...ost @ 10 t ha-1, seem as economical and a potential agro-ecological strategy for improving the deteriorated properties of saline-sodic soil and crop production. 

...

Olugbenga Omotayo Alabi1*, Ayoola Olugbenga Oladele2 and Ibrahim Maharazu3

Profitability Analysis and Marketing Efficiency of Soyabean (Glycine max) Value Chain among Actors in Abuja, Nigeria
...ives: describe the socio-economic characteristics of soyabean marketers, determine the marketing cost, marketing margin, and marketing efficiency of soyabean, analyze the costs and returns of marketing soyabean, evaluate factors influencing or affecting marketing efficiency of soyabean, and identify problems or constraints influencing marketing of soyabean. Data obtained were collected from one hundred and fifty (150) randomly selected soyabeans marketers, usi...

Rana Shahzad Noor1,2, Fiaz Hussain2, Irfan Abbas3, Muhammad Umair2, Abu Saad2, Muhammad Umar Farooq4 and Yong Sun1*

Assessing Sustainability of Rainfed Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) Production under Various Soil Tillage Systems: An Energy and Economic Analysis
...m of energy analysis and economics of wheat production. Highest energy inputs obtained were fertilizer, seed and fuel + oil energies in all tillage systems for wheat sowing, respectively. Results interpretation indicated that the highest (2,300 kgha-1 and 40.56 lha-1) and lowest (1,930 kgha-1 and 8.97 lha-1) wheat yields were measured in CT and ZT farming treatments, respectively. The maximum and lowest energy values were calculated in PT (6.03) and CT (5.14),...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2

An Empirical Analysis of Economic Efficiency and Farm Size of Cotton Farmers
...pact of farm size on the economic efficiency of cotton farmers in southern Punjab of Pakistan. Farm-level allocative, economic and technical efficiency of samples of 240 small, medium and large-scale cotton farmers was estimated using Stochastic Frontier Approach of district Rahim Yar Khan Punjab, Pakistan. Empirical findings of the study indicated that medium farm size cotton farmers were more allocative, technically and

Abdiaziz Idiris Mohamud1, Yonis Abukar Mohamed2, Osman Sheikh Ali Jama3, Pravin Mishra4* and Mohamed Idiris Mohamed5 

Prevalence and Major Pathogens Associated with Clinical and Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Benadir Region of Somalia
...astitis hence minimizing economic loss and prevents significant public health risks.

...

Rao Wali Muhammad1, Hafiz Muhammad Wasif Ali2*, Amir Hamza1, Muhammad Qadir Ahmad2, Abdul Qayyum2, Waqas Malik2 and Etrat Noor2

Estimation of Different Genetic Parameters in Various Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Genotypes under Field Condition
...imates regarding various economic traits i.e. days to flowering, plant height, days to maturity, no. of primary branches per plant, no. of secondary branches per plant, pods per plant, 1000-seed weight and yield per plant of 200 safflower accessions. Analysis of variance and principal component analysis were carried out to estimate the extent of variability for studied parameters and to partition the germplasm into various cluster groups on basis of their mean...

Muhammad Arsaln1, Sair Sarwar2*, Rizwan Latif1, Junaid Nawaz Chauhdary3, Munazza Yousra2 and Shahbaz Ahmad2

Effect of Vermicompost and Microbial Inoculants on Yield, Soil Fertility and Economics of Wheat under Rainfed Conditions
... the crop production and economic returns but also improve the soil health. A two years field study was conducted in the farm of Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal (32o55’33”N, 72 o43’30”E) to evaluate the integrated impact of vermicompost (VC) and microbial inoculants on wheat yield and economics. Eight treatments i.e., control; recommended dose of fertilizers (160:150:50) NPK in kg ha-1...

Shahzad Khan*, Munir Khan, Inayatullah Jan, Mahfooz Khan and Fida Muhammad Khan

Determinants of Sugarcane Yield in District Charsadda, Pakistan
... conducted to perform an economic analysis and to investigate determinants of sugarcane crop in district Charsadda in the year 2018. Three villages viz. Kamran Kalay, Aspandehri, and Sarfaraz Kalay were selected purposively. Primary data were collected with face to face interview method from 41 randomly selected sugarcane growers through structured questionnaire. The selection of farmers was based on proportional allocation technique in the selected villages. ...
Ateeq Ahmad1, Umar Hayat2, Shahid Ali2*, Hazrat Bilal3, Naveed Ali2, Khan Mir Khan4 and Khalid Khan4
Descriptive Analysis of Water Resources in Pakistan: A Perspective of Climate Change
... population lacks enough economic resources to satisfy the basic needs of masses. Furthermore, the future of Himalayan glaciers at risk due to emerging climate change in the region. Pakistan is located in rid region where the issue of water security is forefront problem particularly for agricultural sector. While its use in various sectors like industrial and urban push the country further into water crises. The purpose of present research is to highlight the ...
Sajad Ali1*, Naeem Ur Rehman Khatak1, Iftikhar Ahmad2, Jangraiz Khan3 and Azra4
Impact of Socioeconomic Factors and farm Size on Wheat Productivity: A Case Study of District Peshawar, Pakistan
...gates the impact of socioeconomic characteristics as well as the farm size of wheat productivity in district Peshawar. Wheat is the main staple food item of the country’s population and the largest grain crop as well. Pakistan has been regularly importing wheat, except for the few years. This study is based on primary data collected in 2019 from district Peshawar.A sample of 200 (160 large and 40 small) wheat growers weretaken from twelve selected villag...

Muhammad Imran1,2*, Shahbaz Talib Sahi1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Amer Rasul3

Brown Leaf Spot: An Exacerbated Embryonic Disease of Rice: A Review
...friendly, cost-effective economically and biodegradable. The use of plant activators as another new strategy that activates the defense system of plants and reduces the disease. The plants which are scarce nutrients are more prone to disease as compared to nutrient deficient. The pathogen damage is compensating by a specific nutrient that reduces the disease through tolerance. Good management practices are those which include all possible combinations of cultu...

Christian Marco Hadi Nugroho1 and Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan2,3,4*

Production of Antibody for Direct Fluorescence Antibody Assay against Avian Influenza H9N2
...any years and had caused economic losses in poultry industries. Infection with this virus decreases egg production and increases chicken mortality. In human health, cases of this zoonotic agent are being reported and some cases showed fatal infection. The H9N2 is highly contagious, and transmission can occur from chicken to chicken, chicken to humans through the air, or sometimes from humans to humans. H9N2 belongs to alpha influenza virus genus of the family ...

Sajid Amin Sarmad1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Luqman1, Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Sohail Ahmed3 and Sylvain Nafiba Ouédraogo2

Development and Laboratory Evaluation of a Slow Release Formulation of Fipronil against Subterranean Termites (Odontotermes obesus Rambur)
...soptera: Termitidae) are economically important agricultural and structural pests. A wide range of insecticides with different modes of action are being used against these termite pests including organochlorines, organophosphates and pyrethroids. However, pesticidal control of termites is usually not persistent and long-lasting due to rapid decomposition and loss of insecticidal molecules active against target pests. This study was aimed to develop and evaluat...
Ammara Gull-E-Fareen1, 3, Imran Bodlah1*, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Yasir Niaz2, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah2, Muhammad Asif4 and Nasir M. Khokhar5
...ll;">Ants are the economically important and metropolitan insects on earth. They act as soil engineers, scavengers, decomposers, predators, pollinators and herbivores. The mutualistic relationship between ants and aphids is a very common and widespread phenomenon. It has been studied in various parts of the world. In this relationship, aphids provide food to the ants, while in return ants provide them protection from natural enemies. Ants also protect a...

Imtiaz Hussain1, Azhar Mahmood Aulakh2, Muhammad Sohail1*, Khalid Hussain2, Ansaar Ahmed3, Abdul Hamid3 and Muhammad Imtiaz3

Impact of Zero Tillage on Productivity of Traditional Mung Bean-Wheat Cropping System of Punjab, Pakistan
...ro tillage) proved to be economical and resource conserving compare to conventional tillage.
...

Muhammad Ramzan1, Muneer Abbas1*, Sohail Abbas2, Niaz Hussain1, Muhammad Aslam1, Javed Anwar Shah1, Muhammad Irshad1 and Mudassar Khaliq1

Incidence of Different Aphid Species on Various High Yielding Wheat Varieties
...ng a significant role in economic stability of Pakistan. Among other pests aphid is a major one which contributes towards low yield on wheat farms. Different wheat developmental periods, i.e., seedling (SS), tillering (TS), stem elongation (SES), heading (HS), dough (DS) and ripening (RS) were studied. Through evaluating, seven varieties i.e. Sahar-2006, Faisalabad-2008, Punjab-2011, Galaxi-2013, Gold-2016, Fakhr-e-Bhakkar-2017 and Bhakkar Star-2018 the most s...

Syeda Farzana Bibi* and Siraj ud Din

Unraveling the Bioherbicidal Potential, Elemental Analysis and Nutritional Evaluation of Crataeva adansonii Dc Leaf and Bark
...sily accessible and more economical than their synthetic alternatives. This study aims to conduct a phytotoxic study of ethanolic extract of Crataeva adansonii DC. leaf and stem bark for assessment of its bioherbicidal potential. Elemental and nutritional analysis of the plant parts was also done to accentuate this plant’s use in the nutritional and agricultural industry. Elemental analysis of C. adansonii stem bark and leaf was assessed through atomic a...

Fan Sigang1, Guo Yihui1* and Xu Youhou2

...lamys nobilis) is an economically important cultured marine bivalve shellfish common in southern China. Investigation on the molecular regulatory mechanisms of gonadal maturation in scallop is critical in the aquacultural industry. Here, gonads in maturing stage were obtained from noble scallops and sequenced using an Illumina high-throughput sequencer, producing 6.68 and 6.70 Gb of data for the ovary and testis, respectively. Reproduction-related genes, i...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Afzal1,Muhammad Asam Riaz1,Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Luqman2, Mehar Zubair Shehzad1, Muhammad Bilal Tayyab1, Mujahid Tanvir1 and Saadia Wahid1
...ur major insect pests of economic importance. Results of this study demonstrate the relative insecticidal potential of indigenous plant extracts as biorational alternates to toxic synthetic insecticides and recommend the incorporation of these phyto-chemicals in the future insect pest management programs.
...
Jianjun Fu1, Shili Liu2, 3, Wenbin Zhu1, Yongyi Jia2, 3, Lanmei Wang1, Yufen Yang4, Zhimin Gu2, 3*and Zaijie Dong1*
...lter alburnus) is an economically important fish in China. However, natural stocks have been decreasing rapidly in recent years. Genetic improvement breeding programs of C. alburnus offer an essential strategy in developing a sustainable solution. In this study, we developed three multiplex PCR panels, including twelve microsatellite loci for C. alburnus, and applied parentage analyses using 36 candidate parents and 136 offspring from four in...
Mumtazur Rahman1, Farhan Anwar Khan1,*,Umar Sadique1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Faisal Ahmad1,2, Hayatullah Khan1,3, Muhammad Saeed1, Faiz Ur Rehman1, Ibrar Hussain1, M. Faraz Khan1, M. Izhar ul Haque1 and Hanif-ur-Rehman1,3

...pecially goats. It is an economically important disease, causing high morbidity and mortality in goats. More recently Mccp Pakistan strain has been identified and isolated by our laboratory. Alarmingly, antimicrobials in animals are inappropriately using and resultantly leading to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) including mycoplasmas, which are causing serious infections in ruminants. Since the growth curve of our local strain and its susceptibility to commonly...

Asifa Kamal1*, Ghazala Noreen1 and Muhammad Amin2

Trends and Determinants of Fertility in Pakistan: Multivariate Decomposition Analysis (PDHS 1990-91 to PDHS 2012-13)
...dentify the demographic, economic and attitudinal factors affecting fertility in Pakistan for the three waves of cross sectional Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PSHS 1990-91, PDHS 2006-07 and PDHS 2012-13). Multivariate decomposition analysis and pooled cross section techniques are used to analyse the data. It is concluded from multivariate pooled analysis of three surveys that age of women at first birth, region (Balochistan), wealth index (rich), ed...
Arshad Mahmood Malik1*, Hafiz Muhammad Tayyab1, Muhammad Arshad Ullah2 and Muhammad Talha Bilal3
Dynamics of Salinity and Land Use in Punjab Province of Pakistan
...ty hasdevastating socio- economic impact on farmer’s micro economy in Pakistan, directly impactingliving standard, migration, health, the crumbling of houses, and harming tocommunication and transport. The study in hand was designed to investigate the impact of salinity on irrigated area, uncultivated area and wheat area in Punjab using panel data of four agriculture census conducted in1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 in all districts of Punjab. Fixed and rando...
Abdul Hameed1*, Ihtsham ul Haq Padda2 and Abdul Salam3
Estimating Food Consumption Patterns in Pakistan by Using Ideal Demand System
...ing integrated household economic survey 2015-16 data and the nonlinear quadratic almost ideal demand system. The paper finding shows that demand for most commodity items except for fruit, meat, sugar and other products is less than unit elastic to expenditure elasticity at the country and regional levels. Cross price elasticity assessment demonstrates that the most nutritious food items, such as fruit, milk and meat, are complementary products as compared to ...

Ali Zohaib1*, Habib Ullah2, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum2, Tahira Tabassum2, Muzzammil Hussain1, Mohsin Nawaz3, Ghulam Abbas4 and Sohail Irshad5

Effect of NPK Fertilization Strategies on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Use Efficiency and Economic Benefits of Relay Intercropped Wheat in Cotton
...y of nitrogen (NUEA) and economic benefits of relay-intercropped wheat in cotton. Fertilization timing significantly affected growth, yield and NUEA of wheat. Application of T4 (all PK at sowing, ½ N at sowing and ½ at tillering) caused maximum improvement in plant height, fertile tillers, grains per spike, biological yield, grain yield and NUEA. Economic analysis also manifested that the greatest net returns a...

Muhammad Shaheen

Mining Patterns from Complex Energy Dataset: A Case Study of Pakistan’s Energy Sector
...ole of energy in social, economic and environmental factors defines its prominence in sustainability. To ensure sustainable energy development the consumption and production patterns may comply with each other and may also comply with the conditions of sustainability. This paper reviewed the current state of energy in Pakistan and proposed an automated intelligent geographic decision support system that ensures optimal energy development plan for the country i...

Salim Raza1*, Khan Gul Jadoon2, Sajjad Hussain1, Zahid ur Rehman1, Saira Sherin1 and Noor Muhammad1

Mitigation Plan for Identified Problems Faced by the Marble Industry in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
...om quarries carries less economic value and could not compete in the international market. Marble industry of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is selected for this study because major activities in this sector are being carried out in this province where more than 90% of the country’s reserves are located. The research documented here highlights and evaluates different problems faced by the marble industry in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan and mitigation plan is pr...

Sanaullah1*, Abdul Basit2 and Inayat Ullah3

Challenges and Prospects of Farm Mechanization in Pakistan: A Case Study of Rural Farmers in District Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
...gather data on the socio-economic features of the farmers and available machinery. A total of 240 rural farmers were randomly selected from two local union councils of provincial government Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Peshawar. The accumulated data were analysed using mean and standard deviation with an acceptance mean value of ≥3.00 and estimating logit model. Socio demographic features revealed that majority (52%) were in middle age group of 41-50 years, 64% were ...

Shawaiz Iqbal1*, Nadeem Iqbal2, Usama Bin Khalid1, Muhammad Usman Saleem1, Adila Iram1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Muhammad Sabar1 and Tahir Hussain Awan1

Growth, Yield and Economic Analysis of Dry-Seeded Basmati Rice
...ables farmers to harvest economical rice production. Field study was conducted at Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Pakistan in 2014 and in 2015 to evaluate the different planting methods. Three dry-seeded rice (DSR) planting methods viz. (i) DSR-broadcast, (ii) DSR-drill, (iii) DSR-ridges were compared with the conventional transplanting (TR) method in lines having row to row and plant to plant distance of 22.5cm distance, and farmer transplanting meth...

Mehar Ul Nissa Rais1*, Tahmina Mangan1, Jam Ghulam Murtaza Sahito1 and Naeem Ahmed Qureshi2

A Trend Analysis: Forecasting Growth Performance of Production and Export of Chilli in Pakistan
...: justify;">Chilli is an economically very important and valuable crop of Pakistan, which is consumed domestically and exported throughout the world. The present research was carried out to examine province wise production, export growth performance and forecasting of chilli in Pakistan. Annual time series data of 38 years (1981-2018) of chilli production and export was employed for this study. Overall, chilli production of the Pakistan exhibited a positive gr...

Muhammad Tariq Mahmood1*, Muhammad Akhtar2, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Saleem2, Ali Aziz2, Irfan Rasool2, Zeshan Ali3 and Muhammad Amin2

An Update on Biology, Extent of Damage and Effective Management Strategies of Chickpea Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera)
...en found more effective, economical, sustainable and eco-friendly.

...
Zhen-Yang Wu1, Li Li1, Yu-Hua Fu2, Sheng Wang3, Qing-Ming An1, Xiao-Hui Tang4, Xiao-Yong Du3,5,* and Fei Zhou6,*
...olor as one of important economic traits which can affect wool price directly. In this study, to investigate the functional roles of genes in Tibetan sheep skin with different coat colors, we sequenced genes from six skin samples using Solexa sequencing. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 63,283,784 and 63,644,062 clean reads in black and white skin, respectively. A total of 60 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, providing evidence that the diff...
Muhammad Shoaib1, Imran Rashid1*, Haroon Akbar1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi3, Muhammad Asif3, Mumtaz Ali Khan4, Shakeel Mahmood5 and Farhan Anwar Khan6
...ly. In accordance to its economic impact the current study was conducted in three districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan i.e. Mardan, Kohat and Swat. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ixodid ticks and associated animals’ related risk factors. A total of 434 tick infested cattle from three districts were examined conveniently. The genus Rhipicephalus was the most prevalent (68.4%) followed by Hyalomma (...

Muhammad Shahid1*, Unsar Naeem-Ullah1, Waheed S. Khan2, Shafqat Saeed1 and Kashif Razzaq3

Application of Nanotechnology for Insect Pests Management: A Review
... socially acceptable and economically sound. In current scenario, the nanotechnology has revolutionized the agriculture with the greatest potential of nano based insecticides for the insect pest management. The physical and chemical approaches are most widely used for the synthesis of nanoparticles but actually they are detrimental for the environment and human health. The emphasis of this review article is to critic the potential of nanotechnology for insect ...

Muhammad Riaz Gondal1*, Sultan Ahmad Rizvi1, Aaqib Riaz2, Waqas Naseem1, Ghulam Muhammad1, Mazher Iqbal3, Humara Umer3 and Inam ul Haq3

Apposite Sowing Techniques to Optimize Productivity and Profitability of Berseem

Inam Ul Haq1*, Humara Umar2, Naeem Akhtar3, Muhammad Azhar Iqbal2 and Muhammad Ijaz1

Techniques for Micropropagation of Olive (Olea europaea L.): A Systematic Review
...echniques of olive are uneconomical with wastage of time while micropropagation of olive may expedite the development of important characteristics like biotic and abiotic resistance with high yield and premium quality olive oil. However, the commercial micropropagation of olive trees is currently not enough because of production cost and globally; it is mostly used for research and development on various aspects of olives. In this review, efforts are made to d...

Muhammad Umair Hassan1, Muhammad Aamer1, Muhammad Nawaz2, Abdul Rehman3, Talha Aslam3, Ubaid Afzal4, Bilal Ahmad Shahzad3, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub5, Faryal Ahmed1, Ma Qiaoying1, Su Qitao1 and Huang Guoqin1*

Agronomic Bio-Fortification of Wheat to Combat Zinc Deficiency in Developing Countries
...be short term, quick and economic solution to increase the Zn contents to meet human needs. The application of Zn as foliar sprays, seed priming, soil application and soil+foliar application effectively enhanced Zn uptake and grain Zn contents. Zn fertilization also maintains desirable Zn availability in soil solution and maintains the Zn pools in plant tissues during later stages thus resulting in an increase in Zn accumulation in wheat grains. Therefore, in ...
Muhammad Ayub1*, Munir Hussain2, Sher Ahmad2, Syed Arif Hussain Rizvi3, Shahid Hussain1, Muhammad Qasim2, Muhammad Din2, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi4 and Tajudin2
...potato tubers and causes economic loss of Gilgit-Baltistan. The study was conducted with an aim to develop eco-friendly management of white grub. Fermented extracts of four herbs Sophora alopecuroides, Artemisia sieversiana, Peganum harmalla and Tagetes minuta were evaluated against white grub under field conditions for two consecutive growing seasons during 2018 and 2019. The minimum per cent infestation, number of white grubs per plot, y...
Malik Muhammad Yousaf1*, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1*, Mumtaz Hussain1, Jahangir Shah1, Rao Wali Muhammad1, Sami Ullah2,3, Hera Gul4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Muhammad Zeshan6
 
 
...ide attention due to its economic value, potential by-products and ability to withstand vagaries of the desert environment. By realizing the economic importance of this high-value desert plant, a pioneer study on seed germination response to various agro-climatic factors was conducted at the Arid Zone Research Institute Bahawalpur. Healthy jojoba seeds were sown at the fortnightly intervals by dividing the whole year into 16...
Guofang Wu1,2, Xingxing Xue1, Wenjuan Shen1, Lei Wang1,2*, Yuhong Ma1 and Jiping Zhou1
...t number is an important economic trait in the pig breeding industry and is directly related to the livability and growth status of piglets. By applying genetic technology, it may be possible to increase the number of teats and thus enhance production. Previous research has shown that teat number exhibits moderate levels of heritability that could be accelerated by the use of a genetic marker, such as microsatellites. Based on our preliminary sequencing data, ...
Muhammad Qayash Khan1,2, Muhammad Zubair Anjum2, Muhammad Adnan3, Abbas Khan1, Hafsa Zahid1, Javed Nawab4, Sher Zaman Safi5Muhammad Ishaq Ali Shah6, Atif Kamil7 and Abid Ali1*
...ation of fish species of economic importance belonging to the genus Schizothorax, Tor and Mystus collected from various rivers of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The samples were morphologically identified, its mitochondrial DNA was extracted and subjected to molecular characterization by amplifying and sequencing the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene. The sequencing data revealed rich genetic diversity among fish specimens bel...
Eman Khalifa1*, Riad Khalil2 and Haitham Elaadli3
...ission to man as well as economic losses. So, strict hygienic regulations and novel diagnostic tools should be used for prevention and detection of tuberculous mastitis in buffaloes’ farms. The general public health should also be intensely warned from consuming raw or unpasteurized milk. All these prophylactic measures will eventually lead to a positive impact on public health.
...
Saba Shabeer1, Riffat Tahira2 and Atif Jamal3*
 
...ng fungi that cause many economically important diseases of crops.Many species are included in the Fusarium genus, which are not only pathogenic to plants but also cause different diseases in humans and livestock.Apart from diseases, one of the most dangerous characteristics of this fungus is the ability to produce dangerous secondary toxic metabolites, which are commonly known as mycotoxins. Some of the important toxins produced by diffe...
Kamran Baksh Soomro1*, Sina Alaghmand2, Sanyogita Andriyas3, Muhammad Rehmatullah Khan4, Naveedullah5 and Amin Talei6
 
 
...er, one hardly knows the economic implications of such recommendations. In this regard, the effect of saline irrigation on the economics of crop yield deserves scientific inquiry. A field experiment was conducted during 2018-19 to study the impact of saline water on the economics of bitter gourd yield and soil salinity after the end of the crop. Two irrigation treatments including freshwat...
Umair Riaz1*, Shazia Iqbal2, Muhammad Irfan Sohail2, Tayyaba Samreen2, Muhammad Ashraf1, Fatima Akmal2, Ayesha Siddiqui3, Ijaz Ahmad4, Muhammad Naveed5, Naveed Iqbal Khan5 and Rao Masood Akhter6
...igin. Multitude of socio-economic factors influence economic values of medicinal plants both locally and at international level. The world trade in botanicals is US $ 32.702 billion and Asian botanical trade is for US $ 14.505 billion with 6.634 million tones and accounts for 44.35 per cent and 53.13 per cent of world trade in terms of value and volume, respectively. Following the leading role of China with 1.48% share in MA...

Faheem Aslam1,*, Aneel Salman2, Inayatullah Jan3 and Sarah Siddiq Aneel4

...y;">The role of water in economic output, job creation, household sustenance, and industrial growth depends on the kind of water systems and policies a country develops and implements. Due to its value and importance in all aspects of life, water is a highly political issue. The purpose of this study is to explore the water policies of Pakistan (2017) and India (2012) through quantitative analysis of textual data. The text mining of these water policies enable...
Canan Vejselova Sezer*
...s have increased both in economically less and highly developed countries. Two of the leading causes of the death of cancer are lung and breast cancers among males and females, respectively. A variety of drugs are in use for cancer treatment but their recruiting properties are limited because of the developing resistance and/or finiteness of bioavailability. Current research is aimed at synthesis of a new effective agent of a different type, silymarin-loaded s...

Syed Mazuan, Syed Mohamed, Insyirah Ishak, Dzolkhifli Omar and Norhayu Asib*

...nsis Jacq.) is a crucial economic crop in Malaysia which has become susceptible towards pests and diseases. Studies showed the major leaf defoliator of oil palm in Malaysia is the bagworm, Metisa plana. Various spraying methods had been developed for controlling the bagworms. A ground study was conducted in FELDA Gunung Besout 04, Perak, with its main focus on mistblower application towards bagworms. Stihl SR420 mistblower was characterised by having 1.2L / mi...

Manzoor Hussain Memon1, Khalid Khan2, Anjum Parvez3, Sarfaraz Ahmed Shaikh4, Khan Mir Khan2, Guo Xiangyu5*, Mohammad Nasrullah6 and Saima Liaqat7

...ovide an inexpensive and economical source of meat for the masses. Globally, the poultry industry has shown exponential growth and profitability in the sector is considerably higher. However, in the case of Pakistan both producers and consumers are unable to reap the benefits. Consumers and poultry farmers, the two extreme of value chain are in surplus loss because of no. of agents in the supply chain. Keeping in view the importance of poultry industry, the st...
Asim Faraz1*, Abdul Waheed1, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1 and  Muhammad Shahid Nabeel2 
...ed that weaning was more economical and resulted in savings of PKR 16,137 and 15,213 in calve groups fed with 18% and 22% levels of protein, respectively.
...

Attaullah Jan1*, Saleem Khan2, Iftikhar Alam1, Farzeen Khan3 and Muhammad Farooq4*

...onged to low-middle socioeconomic class. Prevalence of malnutrition as indicated by any of the three indicators was: underweight 16.8%; stunting 27.7%; thinness 9.8 %. Correlation between age and protein and energy intake, and weight and energy and protein, showed that protein energy intake increased with increasing age and weight. Overall, both stunting and underweight were more common in girls than boys. Girls in general, had poor nutrient intake compared to...

Shapon Kumar Bashak1, Alok Kumar Paul1, Md. Akhtar Hossain1, Usman Atique2,3*, Sonia Iqbal3, Md. Najim Uddin1, Asrafi Mohammad Farhaduzzaman4, Md. Mojibar Rahman5, Md. Shahanul Islam6

...e production and culture economics of cuchia (Monopterus cuchia) in semi-intensive aquaculture ponds. The cuchia eel was reared in rainfed earthen fishponds and supplemented with poultry viscera in three different stocking densities of T1 (9880 cuchia/ha), T2 (14820 cuchia/ha) and T3 (19760 cuchia/ha). The results divulged that the physicochemical water quality factors varied significantly in different ponds. Similar was the case with the mean outcomes about t...

Talat Farid Ahmed1*, Shamim-ul-Sibtain Shah1, Ashfaq Ahmed Sheikh2, Hashim Nisar Hashmi3, Muhammad Atiqullah Khan1 and Muhammad Azeem Afzal1

...ad) area, enhancement in economic condition of the area, stable farming in the Pachad area and providing maximum use of flood water for agriculture to increase production and ultimately for socio-economic uplift of the area. The data regarding flood levels and topographic maps have collected from Irrigation and NESPAK departments. It is concluded that by the Construction of Management Structures for Hill Torrents will result...
Muhammad Afnan Rabbi, Iqtidar Hussain*, Ejaz Ahmed, Muhammad Saad and Aitezaz Ali Asad Shahani
...ction is to increase its economic yields in an endurable manner by improving fertility of the soil. Many struggles have been done to enhance the wheat productivity since last decade. Use of synthetic plant growth regulators with nitrogen supply seems to be fruitful in this regard. So, an experiment was designed to assess the effect of various doses of N and P2O5 with combination of exogenous application of naphthalene acetic acid levels in late sown wheat in a...

Mahwish Munawar1, Xu Shiwei1, Yu Wen1 and Muhammad Luqman2*

...ld to deal with natural, economic, and social shocks depend upon available resources and capabilities. Families belonging to different vicinities and socio-economic groups have different earning and utilising earnings to fulfil their basic needs. Households need various interventions for well-being. While keeping in view the situation, this study planned to deepen insight into rural households’ food consumption system....

Muhammad Adnan Fahad1, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Sheraz Ahmed2* and Imtiaz Ali2

...therefore justified from economic perspectives.

...

Muhammad Ahsan1*, Aneela Ramzan1, Muhammad Nafees1, Adnan Younis2, Muhammad Amin1, Gulzar Akhtar3, Khansa Saleem1 and Azka Sabeeh1

...most important crop both economically as well as aesthetically whose beauty must be enjoyed for longer period of life. Current experiment was performed to discover the comparative consequence of various vase solutions to improve the post-harvest qualities and extend vase life of Rosa hybrida cv. Freedom. The research was performed at the research area of Department of Horticultural Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur. There were 11 treatments compri...

Chala Hailu Hussen and Fikiru Temesgen Geleta

...tiated to describe socio-economic factors of cluster crop producers, challenges of cluster crop production, and examine factors affecting smallholder farmers’ participation decision in cluster crop production. By employing two-stage sampling techniques, data was collected from 160 farm households of selected Western Shewa zone districts, namely Ejersa-Lafo, and Bako-Tibe. Data was emanated from primary sources, which administrated by semi-structured ques...
Sajid Ali1, Muhammad Avais1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Kamran Ashraf2, Saira Jabeen1, Sajid Hameed3, Muhammad Awais1, Jawaria Ali Khan1 and Imtiaz Ahmad4 
...hich results in colossal economic losses for dairy producers. Nevertheless, it is overlooked and least studied dairy problem in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of lameness at commercial dairy herds in Punjab, Pakistan. The sample size was 2,555 cows from 15 dairy herds assessed using a 5-point locomotion rating scale. A cow with a locomotion score of 3 or higher was considered to be lame. Lame c...

Fazal Subhan1,2, Abdul Malik1, Zia Ul Haq1 and Tariq Mahmood Khalil1,3*

... of water should be used economically and efficiently to sustain and improve agriculture productions. Based on actual crop requirements, irrigation techniques need improvement to get maximum yield with reduced irrigation. A field experiment was performed at Mardan region, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, during 2018-19 with the objectives to evaluate the effect of different furrow irrigation techniques and deficit irrigation on cauliflower yield and water use eff...

Rabia Iqbal and Muhammad Naeem *

...not only cost-efficient, economical but also nutritional and wholesome for a fish’s health condition.

...

Summara Abbasi* and Khalid Nawab

...rect impact on the socio-economic development of rural milk producers as milk production has a significant contribution to sustainable rural livelihoods. For this purpose, the present research was conducted to determine the socio-economic factors that influence the rural milk producers in the adoption of dairy technology. A survey was carried out in district Muzaffarabad of Azad Jammu and Kashmir by selecting 8 villages purp...

Sagir Hussain*, Qamar Abbas, Abdur Razzaq and Sher Wali Khan

...t widely distributed and economically important plant parasitic nematode genus. During the present investigation of plant-parasitic nematode fauna from Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, four cyst nematode species viz., Heterodera avenae Wollenweber, 1924; H. mani Mathews,1971; H. schachtii Schmidt, 1871 and H. zeae Koshy, Swarup and Sethi, 1971 were detected from all four districts.

...

Amar Iqbal Saqib, Khalil Ahmed*, Muhammad Khalid Bhatti, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz, Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum, Abdul Rasul Naseem, Aftab Ahmad Sheikh and Belqees Akhter

... through practicable and economical methods in two different textured soils. Treatments were: (A) Types of soils. 1) sandy loam, 2) clay loam, (B) Remedial strategies, 1). canal water, 2) saline-sodic tube well water (continuous), 3) three irrigations of tube well water and two of canal water in a cyclic manner (short cyclic use), 4) tube well water + gypsum @ RSC of water, 5) tube well water+ canal water in 1:1 ratio (conjunctive use). Data showed that the hi...

Ayaz Ahmed* and Muhammad Zulfiqar

...est-ecological and socio-economic settings. The study analyzed the effects of JFM on local livelihood by using binary logistic regression. Odds ratio analysis of the social and natural assets data showed that the Joint Forest Management approach had significantly increased the social and natural assets of the participants. In terms of financial asset, odds ratio in favor of ‘NTFPs income’ and ‘employment opportunities’ for JFM sample ho...

Hussan Ara Begum1, Muhammad Hamayun1, Noor Shad1, Waqar Khan3, Jawad Ahmad1, Muhammad Ezaz Hasan Khan2, David Aaron Jones2 and Kishwar Ali2*

...is increasing, impacting economically important plants. The current study assesses the effects of UV radiation on germination, growth, chlorophyll content and fresh and dry weight of Brassica rapa L. and Eruca sativa L. Some seeds of Brassica rapa L. and Eruca sativa L. were placed in petri plates, and were exposed to UV light for 30, 60 and 120 mins daily. The source of UV light was a UV box having a UV Tube. The UV exposure on the seeds reduced the germinati...
Shafaq Fatima1,*, Farkhanda Manzoor1, Humaira Amman1, Zakia Kanwal1, Asma Latif1, Zeeshan Ali2, Hamid Iqbal Gondal2, Sumera Sajjad1 and Raja Shahnawaz Janjua3
...e: small;">Linseed is an economically important plant source of n-3 polyunsaturated alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) which can be used as supplemental dietary lipid in fish feed particularly carps. In developing countries where fish oil is not an ingredient of fish feed due to its high cost, the addition of economical plant oils rich in n-3 PUFA in fish diet can remarkably improve its quality. The present study evaluated the effec...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Yin Hengbin2*, Qian Chong3 and Bohyun Kim4
...k and understand ongoing economic implications of particularly important fishery resources. Thus, this study is the first-time attempt to evaluate very important fishery resource, i.e., Penaeus shrimps of Pakistan by considering these aspects. A long catch and effort (CE) data series, 1971-2009, were used in this study. CE data was statistically analyzed by using non-equilibrium surplus production models (NE-SPMs), viz., Fox Model (FM), Schaefer Model (...
Nilgun Dogan1,* and Hakan Adanacioglu2
...tudy is to determine the economic performance of the beekeeping farms. For this purpose, a survey was done in Kelkit County, in northeastern Turkey. The performances of the beekeeping farms were evaluated by cost, profitability and efficiency analysis. The cost of a unit of honey was US$3.16 and the average price paid to the beekeepers was US$6.78. The absolute and relative profits were calculated as US$3.62 and US$2.14, respectively. The efficiency of the bee...
Arshad Ali1, Muhammad Nasir Khan Khattak2*, Muhammad Ali Nawaz3 and Shoaib Hameed3
...re mostly in the form of economic loss to property and infrastructure, damage to crops, and depredation on livestock. In northern Pakistan where large carnivores like common leopard (Panthera pardus), snow leopard (Panthera uncia), Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetinus), Himalayan brown bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus)), grey wolf (Canis lupus), and lynx (Lynx lynx) often encounter humans and contribute to significant

Muhammad Shahzad1*, Syed Amer Mahmood2, Athar Ashraf3, Amer Masood2 and Saira Batool4

... life lines in the socio economic context. 

...

Shahzad Khan1*, Munir Khan1, Arif Alam2, Ikram Shah2, Mahfooz Khan1 and Fida Muhammad Khan1

...was conducted to perform economic analysis and to elaborate the determinants of wheat crop in district Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in the year 2018. Three villages, namely, Aspandehri, Kamran Kalay and Sarfaraz Kalay, were purposively selected. A sample size of 41 wheat growers from farm households was chosen from these villages for data collection. Thus, selection of the farmers was based on the proportional allocation technique. However, primary ...

Walaa ,S. Shabanaa;Bakr, A. Abdallaa; Eman, M. ELShalamia; I.M. Redab; M. A. Shalabyb

...outh disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals.
In Egypt, FMD assumes as enzootic form and attacks susceptible animals causing high losses in milk
and meat production. Rift valley fever virus causes serious and fatal disease in animals and man. It
produces high abortion rate among pregnant ewes and cows, causes heavy mortalities in young
lambs and calves. In the present study the...
Mandour, A. M. 1, Abdel Maksoud, H. M. 2, Amal, A. Khalil 3 and Mohga, A. El-Tahlawey 4
... is the most
economically significant virus infecting maize crop in Egypt. The percentage
of infection differs from one location to another. MDMV was isolated from
naturally infected maize plants at El-Monfia. These samples were checked
for virus presence using Indirect ELISA. A number of cultural practices were
evaluated as control measures against MDMV to minimize the virus
infection in ...
RehamM. El-Bakrey1, Shimaa M.G. Mansour2, Mohammed A. El Sisi1 AndAmal A.M. Eid1
...ndemic in Egypt inducing economic losses in poultry industry and subsequent risk of human infection. Vaccination is an effective method for controlling avian influenza virus infections.This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the commercially applied AI vaccine regimens against challenge with three H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated from chickens, Egypt during 2009-2011. Both inactivated and recombinant fowlpox virus expressing H5 (rFP-AI-H5) vaccines were...

Yasser F. Elnaker 1, Mohamed El-Tholoth 2, Sahar Saber 3, Amira A- Elsaid4, Mohamed A. Saad 3, Emad E. Younis 5

...e of cattle causing high economic losses. Vaccination is the only effective method to control the disease in endemic countries. In the present study, 10 out of 25 clinically examined calves (40%) in a farm in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt during summer 2013 showed clinical signs suspected to be lumpy skin disease, despite vaccination of dams 4 months before parturition with sheep poxvirus vaccine (Kenyan strain). The diseased calves showed localized or generaliz...

Nashwa M. Helmy1 and Ahmed S. A.2

...ntial for causing severe economic loss in susceptible cloven-hoofed
animals. There are seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV), namely O, A, C, SAT 1, SAT
2, SAT 3 and Asia 1. Tests for antibodies of FMDV nonstructural proteins (NSPs) are
useful in providing evidence of previous or current viral replication in the host,
irrespective of vaccination status. NSPs, unlike structural proteins are highly conserved
<...

Ahmed K. El-Attar; Samah A. Mokbel; Ali H. Hamed

...llow dwarf disease is an economically important disease of onion (Allium
cepa L.) caused by Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV). In this research we aimed to
identify and molecularly characterize the isolate of the OYDV infecting onion plants in
Egypt and to obtain OYDV-free plants from infected onions through tissue culture
techniques. To achieve our aim, the virus has been isolated from naturally infected onion

AdlyAbd-Alla1,2, MahaNada3, Francois Cousserans1, and Max Bergoin1

...viridula is an important economic pest in Egypt and in
many countries around the world and requires control management measures. During the
establishment of a N. viridulacolony in Egypt, a significant reduction in the insect
productivity and high mortality rate were observed. Electron microscopy examination of dead
insects homogenate revealed the presence of paraspherical virus like-particles with diameter
...

Aly M. Abdel-Salam1 and Samah A. Mokbel2

...e removed causing severe economic losses.
Reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RT-PCR, using
degenerate primer pair for the coat protein (CP) gene of Ilarvirus amplified products
similar to those produced from peach and apricot isolates of NRSV-infecting stone
fruits. Dot blotting immuno-binding assay (DBIA) showed positive reaction between
NRSV-infected apple sap and an Egyptia...

Magdy, Mariam1 ; Abou ElHassan D.G. 2 ; and Salem, S.A.H 3

...t is a disease with high economic importance. In
Egypt, FMD has taken as enzootic form and many outbreaks had occurred since 1950 and
onwards. FMDV serotype (O) was the most prevalent until serotype (A) appeared in 2006 then
during April and May 2012, six outbreaks of FMD serotype (SAT 2) were reported in Egyptian
governorates. This study based on evaluation of vaccinated animals by detection of antibodies
...

Manar F. Seioudy1, Magda M. Sayed1, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2 and M. A. Shalaby2

... is a highly contagious, economically important viral disease of sheep and goats with high morbidity and mortality rates. A live attenuated PPR vaccine has been produced in Veterinary Serum and Vaccines Research Institute (VSVRI), Abbasia. It has and still been utilized to control PPR disease in endemic areas of the Arabian Gulf. In this study, the identity of four batches of PPR vaccines was tested as per the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) guidelin...

Aly M. Abdel-Salam

... have emerged as a major economic threat to the cucurbit industry in the Middle East and countries in the Mediterranean basin. Whitefly-transmitted viruses to cucurbits include viruses in the Begomovirus, Crinivirus, and Ipomovirus genera. Induced symptoms are mostly of the yellow-type disease symptoms. Previous observation indicated that co-infection of cucurbits with these viruses was very common and may lead to severe problems in virus diagnosis. Objectives...

Salama M. El-Saghir1, 2

...ees and causes extensive economic losses in Egypt. Distinctive symptoms with
PNRSV are necrotic ring spots on leaves, bud failure and poor quantity and quality of fruits. Upon
continuous observation of peach trees previously known to be infected with PNRSV, additional
suspected symptoms of phytoplasma infection were detected. These involved leaf yellowing and
withering, reduction in fruit size, malformation of fr...

Ayman S. El-Habbaa 1, Gabr F. El-Bagoury1, Samar F. El-Adaway2, and Susan S. El-Mahdy2

...ated chickens with great economic losses. Objective: This work aimed for diagnosis and characterization of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) from infected broiler chickens in Egypt. Methods: Suspected virus isolates on embryonated chicken eggs was detected by Hemagglutination (HA) test and identified using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. F protein encoding gene of NDV was amplified using Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) then subjecte...

Ahmed A. Azab, Wesam H. Mady, Ali Zanaty, Mahmoud Samir

...ous disease cause severe economic
losses in poultry production worldwide. Virus isolation is the golden standard for IBV diagnosis so the
aim of this study was comparing the different biological systems for isolation of infectious bronchitis
virus.
Methods: The Egyptian variant 2 IBV strain representative to the current circulating strain in Egypt
was isolated in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonat...
Ashraf S. Khameis, lamya F. Atteya, Ayman H. Mansour, Heba A. Abdelhady, Ashraf A.
Saad
...p and causes significant economic losses in El Menofiya Governorate.
Objectives: The present study was applied for isolation and molecular identification of Sheep pox
virus from clinically affected sheep in El Menofiya governorate, Egypt during 2016. Additionally, the
isolated agent was identified using electron microscopy (EM).
Methods: Thirty five skin lesions of nodular and crusted scab samples were collected ...

Maha A. El-Abhar1, Moustafa A. Elkady1, Khaled M. Ghanem2, Hussieny A. Bosila3

...s a potential and highly economic
adjuvant in FMD vaccine for cattle.
...

Dina A. Abdulrahman1, Ayman H. EL-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shaheen1 & Hussein A. Hussein2

...s and
severe economic losses in the cattle population since its introduction in Egypt. Although vaccination is
practiced to control the disease, it is still endemic. Moreover, emergence of new strains is possible
through the international borders of the endemic countries. Consequently, there is a dire need for
routine molecular characterization of the circulating FMDV strains to ensure the rapid detection of any<...

Abdou Nagy1, Fatma Abdallah1, Kareem Sweed2, Ahmed Salama3, Mohamed Omar4

...iv>poultry and can cause economic losses, particularly when accompanied with secondary pathogens.
Aim: This study aimed to perform seroprevalence of aMPV for non-vaccinated chicken and duck
flocks from six provinces of Egypt (Ash Sharqiyah, Ismailia, Qalyubia, Menufia, Sohaq and North-
Sinai) and determine its economic effect.
Methods: Serum samples were collected from non-aMPV...
Hussein A. Hussein, Maha Khedr, Reem A. Suliman, Marwa F. Mohamed, Mounir D. El
Safty
...y has suffered from high economic losses as a result of the wide
spread of highly pathogenic H5N1. Determination of the optimal antigen content of avian influenza virus
vaccines is urgent to reach protective antibody titers and reduce virus shedding.
Methods: Groups of one-day old commercial broiler chicks were divided in to 8 groups 1, 2 and 3 were
vaccinated with a prepared vaccine contain 500HAU of H5N1 reasso...
Dalia M. Omar1, Nermeen A. Marden1, Lamiaa M. Gaafar1, Elham A. El-ebiary1, Khalid El-Dougdoug2, Badawi Othman2, Abd Elsattar Arafa3, Hussein A. Hussein4
...nce 2006 causing serious economic
losses in poultry sector and human hazard although vaccination programs applied and other control
measures.
Objectives: The present study was designed for detection, isolation, identification and characterization
of Avian influenza viruses (AIV) circulating among poultry in 2016 to determine its suitability to be
used in vaccine quality control in Egypt.
M...
Nagwa K. Meselhy1, Mohamed A. Abo El-khair1, Basem M. Ahmed2, Sherif A. El-Soally3,
Abdelhamid M. Fares1, Mohamed A. Nayel1 and Hussein A. Hussein2
...EHV-1) has a significant economic impact on equine industry. It
is a highly contagious pathogen, mainly transmitted by inhalation of aerosols of virus laden respiratory
secretions especially with high population during equestrian events. Reactivation of virus in nonsymptomatic,
latently (silently) infected horses is the main cause of circulation of such virus in horses.
Methods: In the present study, molecular ch...

Hanaa A. Elsamadony1, Laila A. Tantawy1, Sabry E. Omar2 and Heba A. Abd Alah1

...se that is causing major economic
losses in the poultry industry and these losses are attributed to high mortalities, reduced production and
cost for preventive medications.
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify CAV obtained from farms with problems associated
with decreased body weight and immunosuppression. Also to determine their relationship with vaccine
used in the field and other refe...

Aml S. El-Saadany1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2 and Hussien A. Hussien2

...sing serious
economic losses. In Egypt very virulent (vv) IBDV strains are annually reported since its first
introduction in 1989. Variant IBDV strains were also reported in few studies. To date, IBDV
associated with breaks has been characterized in flocks which were vaccinated with classical IBDV
vaccines and demonstrated IBD characteristic lesions.
Objective: In present study the aim was to molecula...

Shimaa M. Gad1, Ahmed A. Kheder1, Mohamed A. Awad 2

...plants, leads to serious economic losses all over the world. During
2017-2018, gazania showing phyllody, yellowing, proliferation, virescence and little leaf symptoms
was observed Giza, Egypt.
Objective: The current work aims the detection and molecular identification of phytoplasma infecting
Gazania in Egypt.
Methods: Phytoplasma disease was detected and isolated from naturally infected gazania plant...

Tahsin S. Shoala1, Ahmed K. El-Attar2, Ahmed I. Abd El Maksoud3

...e a challenge due to the economic importance of potato
(Solanum tuberosum L.), the fourth largest staple crop in the world. Our research was aiming
to manage PLRV In-Vitro.
Methods: Infected potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. var. slany) were externally sterilized
and cultured in Murashige and Skoog media (MS media). Four weeks later, potato plants were
tested for PLRV using RT-PCR technique, and all...
Ahmed A. ElWakil1, Ausama A. Yousif2 , Adel A. Fayed3, Ibrahim M. elsabagh2, Mahmoud
El Gamal2, Omnia H. Refaei3
...e with
major economic losses. Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) belongs to the genus capripoxvirus of
Poxviridae. Blood-feeding arthropods like mosquitoes, flies and, African tick species play a role in
LSDV maintenance and transmission. Mechanical transmission of LSDV is well documented;
however, evidence of transovarian and transstadial transmission is a tick warrants an investigation into
the replica...
Soad, E. Elsayed 1, Mohammed A. Shalaby2, Ausama A. Yousef2, Abu bakr A. Agor1,
Sherouk E. Aly1
...
Egypt with severe economic impact. The main method of control is through vaccination of the
livestock with a potent vaccine.
Objective: Process development of the current formulations and generating new ones is crucial.
Currently, Montanide ISA 206 is the adjuvant used in FMDV vaccine produced in Egypt which is
w/o/w microemulsion.
Methods: We aimed to increase the efficacy of the conventional ...
Shourok E. Aly 1, Karim Zaki1, Soad E. Elsayed2, M. Elgamal2, Ausama A. Yousef1, Mohamed A. Shalaby1
...accine formulation is an economic
solution that can be added inline to existing production platforms to enhance immunogenicity.
...

Nadeem Anwar1, Muhammad Luqman2*, Shaoib Nasir3, Moazzam Sabir1, Hafiz Bashir Ahmad4 and Saleem Ashraf5

...s growers on their socio-economic development. This research was conducted in district Sargodha, the hub of citrus production. The findings of the study indicate regarding harvesting behavior of the farmers that they do not harvest the fruit by their own. Only a small number of the citrus growers harvest the fruit by their own. Majority of the farmers were found to be unsatisfied about the role of intermediaries and termed these intermediaries as profit-making...

Bakhtiar Gul*, Saleetha Rabial and Haroon Khan

...nd MCPA proved suitable, economical and less laborious for the management of duckweed for large scale infestation.

...

Pukhtoon Yar1*, Salman Khan2, Du Ying1 and Muhammad Israr3

...ying a major role in the economic development of Pakistan and this sector has greatly sustained rural livelihood. There are three various stages for the successful execution of the projects under the umbrella of CPEC. The agriculture sector would be directly or indirectly benefited from these projects, currently ongoing under CPEC. Over the last several decades the country’s agriculture sector has severely been affected, and the crisis in energy might be...

Syed Ismat Hussain1, Khalid Mehmood2, Mudassar Khaliq3, Habib Anwar1, Syed Muhammad Zaka4, Ateeq ur Rehman5*, Muhammad Shahid6, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi5*, Ummad ud Din Umar5 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar7

...ted that the spots above economic threshold level (AETL) was varying between 0.4% in districts viz., D G Khan and Rajanpur to a maximum of 5.0% in district Vehari. Below economic threshold level (BETL) was varying between 0.4% in districts D G Khan and Rajanpur to a maximum infestation found in district Vehari at 23.1%. The population peaks indicate the overlapping seven generations of pink boll worm out of which 5 active ge...

Hina Afzal*, Sarfraz Hassan, Muhammad Khalid Bashir and Asghar Ali 

...tant goal of development economics and macroeconomic policies is achieving sustainable production growth. Continuous production growth is considered to be important for raising living standards. Agriculture’s Total Factor Productivity (TFP) is one of the major sources of production growth. It assesses influence of the economic and technical efficiency in the production of the desired...
Hassan Shahzad Khan1, Muhammad Tariq1*, Tariq Mukhtar2 and Asim Gulzar1
...vironmental friendly and economical. Therefore, in the present study, the toxicity of eight plant extracts and their green synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against A. albopictus. The maximum mortality of 88% of 3rd instar larvae of A. albopictus was caused by datura extract followed by neem and clove. On the other hand, neem and clove extracts caused the maximum mortality (80%) of 4th instar larvae followed by ...

Muhammad Madni Afzal1*, Shahbaz Talib Sahi1, Amer Habib1, Waqas Ashraf2, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan3, Muhammad Raheel2 and Qaiser Shakeel2

...llium cepa L.) is a very economical and productive horticultural crop extensively cultivated worldwide. It is grown commercially throughout the country and contributes significantly to the economy of Pakistan. Onion is susceptible to many foliar, bulb and root fungal pathogens that badly destroy onion crops, greatly reducing its yield and quality. Fusarium oxysporum is a very common soil-borne fungus that causes basal rot onion and it has the ability to surviv...

Javed Anwar Shah1, Azhar Iqbal1, Muhammad Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Aslam3, Muneer Abbas4 and Ilyas Ahmad5*

...e not more efficient and economical except to exploit the host plant resistance mechanism. The present study for screening of 60 elite chickpea lines was carried out for two consecutive years during 2017-18 and 2018-19 under controlled environment at pulses research Institute Faisalabad, Pakistan. Favorable conditions for disease incidence were developed by maintaining the temperature between15-20 °C and humidity >70%. Test entries were inoculated equal...

Masudul Haq Wani and Arshad Bhat*

...carried out by employing economic surplus model on the experimental data collected from the technical expert group of scientists involved in its cultivation, assessment, evaluation and dissemination. By adopting high advance impact assessment technologies and models, the study reveals that under medium density plantation at 2×2.5m (2000 trees/ha) resulted in the productivity of at least 3 mt/ha, the average productivity gain will shoot up from 0.96 MT/ha...

Milkessa Wakjira, Fikiru Temesgen*, Chala Hailu and Dabesa Wegari

...ticle aims to assess the economic impact of COVID-19 outbreak on these businesses to provide policy recommendations to support MSE. Primary data and secondary data were used for this study as the source of data. Three multistage sampling techniques was employ to select 372 MSE in six district towns of Western Shewa Zone by administering personal interview. Descriptive statistics such as percentage, frequency, maximum, minimum, mean and standard deviation were ...

Mukhtar Iderawumi Abdulraheem1*, Muhammad Ihtisham2*, Abiodun Yusuff Moshood3, Nawab Khan4, Muhammad Owais Shahid5, Shafiq Hussain6, Kumail Abbas6 and Fawad Zaman7

...ps. Okra is an important economic vegetable crop that can reach optimum production in the absence of fertilizers/chemicals application and produce promising yields within a short period. However, several elements along with pathogens, pests, and very importantly viral diseases, restrict the belief of these intended goals. The current experiment assessed the effects of mulching materials and weeding regimes on the severity and incidence of not unusual viral dis...

Saadu Mustapha1,2, Norsida Man1*,  Jasmin Arif Shah1, Nitty Hirawaty Kamarulzaman1 and Ahmadu Abubakar Tafida3

... respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics, classify the types of ICT tools adopted by the respondents and identify factors influencing the adoption of ICT in extension service delivery among the respondents. Primary data were obtained using multi-stage cluster sampling technique, using organized questionnaires administered to 254 respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used. The research used Rogers’ Theory of Innovation Diffusion...

Farrukh Ilyas1, Durdana Qaiser Gillani2, Mudassar Yasin3, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal4, Iqbal Javed5*, Shahbaz Ahmad6 and Iftikhar Nabi7

...ricultural sector on the economic growth of Pakistan. Johansen co-integration was used to show the long-run relation between livestock, fisheries, major crops, minor crops, gross capital formation, and economic growth in Pakistan. The data were taken from the Pakistan Economic Surveys for the period 1987-2017. The Vector-Correction Model results show that in the short run livestock and fis...

Inam Ur Rahman1, Sanam Wagma Khattak2*, Muhammad Israr3 and Saima Hashim4

...or wide ranging positive economic outcomes like economic growth, poverty reduction, trade opportunities, increased global security and stability, and improved health and health care. The current study is an attempt to analyze food security situation in Pakistan. Food security, being a multi-dimensional phenomenon comprises of Food Availability, Food Accessibility, Food Utilization and Food Stability is calculated through lin...
Dia Mamadou1,2*, Meissa Beyah1, Sow Amadou Harouna1, Ba Samba Alassane1, Bouzouma Moustapha1, Braham Cheikh Baye1 and Beibou Ely1
...is species biologically, economically and socially sustainable, a monitoring of landings of this species were undertaken from 2015 to 2018. From February 2015 to June 2018, on a regular basis and at each landing of vessels targeting pink lobster, (Palinurus mauritanicus), several times a week or even daily, sampling was carried out on board the vessels or at lobster production plants of this species at the time of their sorting and packaging. A total of...

Muhammad Junaid Yousaf 1, Farhad Ali2*and Fawad Ali2

...ons, which may result in economic production compared to open-pollinated maize varieties or other maize varieties released for normal field conditions.

...

Dilshad Ahmad1*, Muhammad Afzal2 and Asif Ali Abro3

...livestock production. An economic technique of log-linear regression model was applied to identify the factors influencing dairy production and estimate household income difference from dairy production due to formal credit from Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited (ZTBL). Estimates of the study indicated that agricultural credit facilitated to enhance household income 23.58%, increases herd size 35.5% and raises the average number of milking animals 39.74%. The elast...

Nawab Khan1, Ram L. Ray2, Muhammad Ihtisham3*, Badar Naseem Siddiqui4*, Muhammad Khayyam5, Raheel Anjum6 and Simplice A. Asongu7

...an to determine the socioeconomic determinants of the awareness and adoption of apple production practices in 2019. This study selected Ziarat district to investigate socioeconomic determinants of the awareness and adoption of apple production because it is located in the center of the high apple-growing districts in northern Balochistan. A sample of 120 respondents was selected through multi-stage-random sampling from two t...
Funda Turan1*, Ihsan Akyurt2 and Sehriban Cek-Yalniz1
...owth performance, higher economic value. Synthetic steroids are commonly used to induce monosex population in fish but because of the potential hazards of such steroids; the use of new phytochemicals is a potential alternative to be explored. We evaluated hypothesis that red clover extract to sexually undifferentiated fry of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) would affect their sex ratio. Five different concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg L-1

Md. Sanjid Hasan1, A K M Humayun Kober1, Eaftekhar Ahmed Rana2, Md Saiful Bari1,3,4* 

...smaller;">Mastitis is an economically important production disease in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the association of udder lesions with Subclinical Mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows of Chattogram Metropolitan Area (CMA) and Patiya Upazila of Chattogram district during the period from December 2017 to May 2018. For this, 264 milk samples and 155 swab samples were collected from 50 different dairy farms available in CMA and Patiya U...

Najeeb Ullah1*, Muhammad Nadeem2, Malik Mujaddad-ur-Rehman1, Rubina Nelofer2 and Yasir Arfat3

...on that make the process economically feasible and environment friendly by utilizing the industry waste.
...

Ayesha Muzamil, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir, Shaukat Ali, Iram Liaqat, Aamir Ali, Muhammad Summer

...hance the biological and economic traits of silkworms.
...

Mohammed Naji Ahmed Odhah1,2*, Dhary Alewy Almashhadany6, Abdullah Garallah Otaifah7, Bashiru Garba5, Najeeb Mohammed Salah2, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse4*, Mohd Azam Khan G.K3 

...ease causes considerable economic losses and adverse public health challenges in most countries, including the Middle East countries. This study was designed to investigate the current prevalence of hydatidosis and to determine the fertility of hydatid cysts among some ruminants (both local and imported breeds of cattle, sheep, and goats) slaughtered in the abattoirs in Dhamar Province-Yemen. The samples were collected from the Central Corporation Slaughterhou...

Eman H. Mahrous1, Mohamed. W. Abd Al -Azeem2, Faisal A. Wasel1, Waleed Younis2* 

...rabbits with significant economic losses and poor prognosis in Egypt. So, this study aims to detect and identify P. multocida isolated from rabbits by molecular techniques. To establish this goal, lungs, liver, and heart (50 for each organ) were collected from 50 diseased rabbits (suffering from respiratory signs) from backyard rabbits at different localities in Sohag governorate, Egypt. All samples were submitted for PCR test and other conventional methods o...

Tilahun Woretaw1, Netsanet Beyero2*, Yonatan Kassu3 

...ction, productivity, and economic efficiency.

Keywords | Agroecology, Biomass yield, Drinking mixture, Livestock feed, Pentas schimperiana 

...

Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1, Dilbar Hussain2, Muhammad Luqman3, Muhammad Qasim1, Gulfam Yousaf1, Hamza Latif1 and Muhammad Zeeshan1

...nst some destructive and economically important insect pests i.e. mango mealybug (Drosicha mangiferae Green), mango leafhopper (Idioscopus clypealis Lethierry), Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) and subterranean termites (Odontotermes obesus Rambur). Standard twig- and filter paper-dip bioassay methods were used against sap-feeding pests and termites, respectively. Factorial analyses of variance revealed a significant impact of tested insecticid...

Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Umar1, Bashir Ahmad Khan2, Ijaz Ahmed3, Amir Manzoor1, Muhammad Saqib Riaz1, Muhammad Irfan Arif1 and Asif Nawaz1

Aftab Ahmad Sheikh1, Khalil Ahmed1*, Belqees Akhter1, Ghulam Qadir1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1, Hafeezullah Rafa1, Abdul Wakeel1, Abdul Manan Saeed2

...oduction with acceptable economic yield is a viable management strategy. Therefore, a lysimeter study was conducted to evaluate the effects of saline water on quality and quantity of forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Forage sorghum was sown in cemented blocks and five increasing levels of saline water (0.30, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS m-1) were used to irrigate the crop. Data regarding the plant height, fresh/dry fodder yield, nitrogen free extracts (NFE), crude fat...

Asad Ullah1*, Umar Sadique2, Ibadullah Jan2, Imad Khan1, Raheela Taj3, Mumtaz Ali Khan4, Salah-ud-din4, Naimat Ullah Khan1

...obacterium bovis; has an economic importance with public health significance and life-threatening infection at the human-animal-ecosystem interface in low-resource settings and developing countries globally. Our study aimed to investigate the incidence of pulmonic tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in specific occupational groups; to study the socio-demographic conditions, awareness, level of knowledge and practices about tuberculosis; to investigate the molecula...
Samaria Nisar1, Tariq Manzoor Khan1, Muhammad Ahsan Iqbal1, Rahmat Ullah2, Muhammad Asim Bhutta3*, Saghir Ahmad3, Amna Bibi3, Hafeez ur Rehman4, Umar Farooq4 and Muhammad Zubair Ishaq5
...Textile and agricultural economics, cotton plays a significant role. Improving the level of mechanization and the scale of cotton production in Pakistan is an urgent need of the hour. A thorough examination of F2 populations may reveal important information for the development of various breeding programmes. This study was on F2 populations, derived from four parents of upland cotton, i.e. CRIS-134, VH-329, IUB-222, CIM-240 which were sown in the Plant Breedin...

Zahoor Hussain1,2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Mustansar Mubeen3, Muhammad Zia Saleem3, Muhammad Umer Naseer3, Muhammad Luqman4, Raheel Anwar5, Faheem Khadija6 and Aqleem Abbas7

...ease (CGD) is one of the economically significant diseases of Kinnow mandarin. Various management practices have been adopted to mitigate this disease. However, this disease can only be effectively minimized by the application of micronutrients which play an essential role in increasing the vigour of citrus against the disease. In the present study, typical symptoms of citrus greening, such as mottled leaves, were observed on the infected trees. The infected f...

Qurban Ali1, Muhammad Faheem Akhtar1, Asad Aslam1*, Muhammad Shehzad2, Muhammad Jamal2, Humaira Malik1, Imran Nadeem1, Aqsa Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Saleem1, Tamsila Nazir1 and Kanwal Hanif1

...Helicoverpa armigera) is economically vital insect pests for chickpeas and caused huge yield losses in south Asian countries. Host plant resistance, physio-morphic characters counteract the ability of insect to demage and to cause minimum reduction in yield. The experiment was conducted under natural and semi-natural conditions to determine the host plant resistance of nine (09) chick pea advance genotypes viz., (K01211, K01216, K01241, K01242, K09012, KO1308,...
Yang Yang1,2, Ji Shao1,2, Mingxu Zhou3,4, Qiangde Duan1,2, Xinyi Zhang1,2 and Guoqiang Zhu1,2*

...usbandry and causes huge economic losses. The pathogenicity of E. coli is closely related to its virulence factors, which are strictly regulated in vivo, and the quorum sensing system is involved in this process. To study the effect of quorum sensing signal molecule acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) on the biological characteristics of Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), gene lasI of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which is responsible for th...
Tabinda Urooj1,*, Bushra Wasim1, Shamim Mushtaq2, Syed Nudrat Nawaid Shah1, Lubna Faisal3, Moazzam Ali2, Nabeela Rasheed1 and Syed Faizan Ali Rizvi4
...on combine with low socioeconomic status, which further aggravates the health outcomes especially by neglecting the early diagnosis of the disease. Also, higher risk was observed for married women, housewives with extended family that is 3 or more children. Breast feeding for extended duration (at least 2 years) and less age at first childbirth were observed as protective factors for this cancer. Also, majority of our study subjects were diagnosed at late stag...

Ali Zohaib*, Muzzammil Hussain, Iftikhar Ahmad and Adnan Bashir

... growth, grain yield and economic benefits. Seeding rate significantly affected the growth, yield and related traits of fine basmati rice. Increase in seeding rate from 80 to 110 g per tray successively increased number of plants per tray and per hill after transplanting while decreased the root length and root/shoot ratio of rice. Plant height was not affected significantly by seeding rate. Highest increase in number of productive tillers (8%), 1000-grain wei...

Rehman Shahzad1, Saba Irshad1* and Faisal Amin2

...is virus is causing huge economic loss every year due to poor weight gain, drop in egg production and mortality of birds since first reported in 1998. Influenza viral surface protein neuraminidase enhances both virus replication and its release from host cells. In this study we isolated nineteen H9N2 viruses from infected birds of various farms from Punjab, Pakistan. Neuraminidase gene of these viruses was amplified using RT-PCR and sequenced to perform mutati...

Asmaa G. Mubarak1*, Mona M. Mustafa2, Mohamed W. Abdel-Azeem3, Dina N. Ali2 

...health concern with food economic losses worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the mutual role that may be played by chicken-ready meals and food handlers in the transmission of different Salmonella serotypes to hospitalized patients in Assiut Governorate, Egypt, as well as, to assess their pathogenic potential and antimicrobial resistance. Out of 150 chicken meals collected randomly from various restaurants and food shops including, shish-tawook, pa...

Rehman Shahzad1, Saba Irshad1*, Malik Saddique Mehmood1 and Faisal Amin2

...n. It is causing immense economic losses to the farmers. Avian influenza H9N2 virus were isolated from infected birds of different poultry farms in the Province of Punjab, Pakistan. Segment eight gene of the virus was amplified using RT-PCR and sequenced to analyze mutations in this viral segment. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed sequences from 2015 to 2017 form a single evolving clade. Valdar residues conservation scores by multiple sequence alignment showed...

Mustafa Ozan Atasoy

...y leading to substantial economic loss in the worldwide economy. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the manipulation of viral genomes, thereby gaining a better understanding of the molecular insights of viral diseases. These have spurred the development of safer and efficient vector vaccines, which convey immunogenic genes of interest obtained from vitally important diseases. Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has long been considered a versatile tool o...

Shireen S. Aboelwafa¹, Alsagher O. Ali², Rania Hamada³, Hassan Y.A.H. Mahmoud2* 

...d worldwide and of major economic importance in the livestock industry especially sheep and goats. Sheep and goats are thought to be biological indicators of environmental contamination with T. gondii and N. caninum oocysts. In addition, in developing countries such as Egypt, where sheep and goat meat is commonly consumed, T. gondii and N. caninum infection in small ruminants may also affect public health risks. So that we estimate the prevalence of T. gondii ...

Hongqun Li1,*, Liganag Xing1, Xiaoli Liu2, Yonglan Pu3, Yuqing Yang3 and Yongyao Fu1

...rds which leads to great economic losses and ecological damage in the invaded range. Here the geographical distribution of potential pine wilt disease was analyzed by using the Maxent model in the current and future conditions. Our results indicated that Maxent model provided satisfactory result with the AUC value of 0.871 and 0.841 for the model training and testing, respectively. The most significant factors were maximum temperature of hottest month, mean te...
Johar Hussian1, Faiz Muhammad2, Shafqat Fatimah Rehmani3, Aqeel Ahmad4, Nazir Ahmad Lone4, Moomal Bughio5, Syed Khurram Freed1 and Shakeel Ahmed Khan4*
...ase in poultry with huge economic impact and extremely difficult to control due to its multiple serotypes. The disease could be prevented by rapid diagnosis either molecular or serological test. However, the later test is inexpensive such as heamagglutination inhibition test (HI), but IBV fail to give Heamagglutination (HA) reaction without pretreatment. Therefore, we designed this study for preparation of IBV antigen by treating with different enzymes for HA ...

Abdul Haleem1*, Ghulam Hassan1, Arshad Iqbal2, Fahim Ullah Khan3, Muhammad Sajid3, Farhad Ahmad4, Rafi Ullah Khan5 and Mohammad Ilyas2

...nt-1 (12.30), Janbaz for economic yield per plant (20.93g) and spike length (10.87cm), Khatakwal for 100-grain weight (3.27g). Among F2 progenies, best combinations were Khatakwal × Lalma-13 for plant height (93.96 cm), Janbaz × Pirsabak-05 for tillers plant-1 (12.90), Khatakwal × Tatara-96 for economic yield per plant (28.36 g), Pirsabak-05 × Lalma-13 for spikeletsspike-1 (20.10) and Pirsabak-13&time...

Kubilay Ucar1, Görkem Oruk2 and Sait Engindeniz1*

Mahreen Alam*, Muhammad Ashfaq, Sarfraz Hassan and Asghar Ali 

...arming community’s economic status. 

...

Hera Gul Mohmmand1, Rozina Gul1, Hamayoon Khan2, Sheraz Ahmed1*, Laila Fayyaz1, Ajmalud Din1 and Imtiaz Ali1

...gnificant ecological and economic importance; therefore, its application is considered to maximize the yield of various crops, including chickpea. The current experiment was performed to assess the impact of phosphorus application on yield of 15 chickpea genotypes during the growing season of 2017-18 at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications under two treatments. One treatment was a control ...

Saba Iqbal, Asmat Ullah*, Muhammad Luqman, Hafiz Muhammad Akram, Muhammad Kashif Munir and Nawal Zafar

...use efficiency and their economic feasibility. Results of this study revealed that sowing of wheat on ridges and beds gave higher productive tillers (384 ha-1 and 401 ha-1, respectively), grains per spike (47 and 47, respectively), 1000-grains weight (43 and 44 g, respectively) and ultimately higher grain yield (4492 kg ha-1 and 4761 kg ha-1, respectively) than broadcast and drill planting techniques (conventional techniques). Likewise, it was figured out that...

Saima Parveen1, Altaf Mahmood2*, Ayesha Azad3, Sajid Umar4, Nosheen Shoukat6, Mirza Muhammad Arsalan Azam5, Qurat-Ul-Ain5 and Nausheen Akhtar Malik1

...l and consequently cause economic losses. Epidemiological data regarding magnitude of these disease outbreaks is of fundamental importance for planning of a comprehensive control strategy. With retrospective design, this study was conducted from January 2013 through December 2017 in order to assess the disease burden on broilers reared in different open type poultry houses. Out of total 658 commercial farms with capacity of 4221800 broilers, across Chakwal, a ...

Noor Muhammad* and Shah Alam Khan

... napus L.) is one of the economically important crops of Pakistan and mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a serious threat to this crop. This experiment was conducted with an aim to screen out selected canola cultivars for their tolerance against L. erysimi infestation under glass-house conditions. Experiment was carried out using completely randomized design with ten replications for each treatment during growing seasons of 2018 a...

Zhang Dong-jie1, He Xin-miao1,2, Wang Wen-tao1,2 and Liu Di1,2*

...ssociated with important economic traits in the Min pig.

...

Wafaa M.A. Ghoneem, Reham R. El-Tanany and Adel E.M. Mahmoud*

...oductive performance and economic efficiency.

...
Muhammad Faisal Riaz1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1*, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1 and Talha Nazir2
...y of aphids on different economically important plantations in district Sargodha. From November to April 2018-2019 and 2019-2020, about 51,000 apterous adult aphid specimens were collected from various plantations from all six tehsils of district Sargodha and were identified up to species level. Richness and relative abundance of different aphid species were determined by calculating Shannon Wiener’s (H’), Evenness (J’), Dominance (D) and Sam...

Shoaib Hameed1, Shakeel Ahmad1, Jaffar Ud Din2 and Muhammad Ali Nawaz3*

...which translated into an economic loss of USD 34,297 (PKR 2,931,022); USD 357 (PKR 30,531) per household. Himalayan brown bear was not accounted for any livestock loss. Though the public was seen to be strongly against large carnivores, brown bear was considered ‘less dangerous’. Despite limited conflict with humans, brown bear has lost a large part of its historical range in the Hindu Kush Range. The species is confined to the eastern valleys wher...

Muhammad Mohsin1, Zhang Luyao2*, Zhu Ting3, Yin Hengbin3 and Qian Chong3

...stock status and ongoing economic implications. For this purpose, Surplus Production Models (SPMs) were applied to the data through two world famous fishery routines, viz., Catch and Effort Data Analysis (CEDA) and A Stock Production Model Incorporating Covariates (ASPIC). In CEDA, we applied two SPMs, viz., Fox, Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson Models abbreviated as FM, SM and PTM, in that order. On the other hand, in ASPIC, we sued two SPMs, viz., FM and Logisti...

Shumaila Nazir1, Iqbal Javed1, Muhammad Luqman2* and Azra3

...ted to estimate the macroeconomic determinants of Mandarin (Kinnow) export from Pakistan. In this study, the dynamic panel data of 29 importing countries for the period of 2005 to 2018 was estimated by GMM (Generalized Method of Moment) model. The variables of total exports of Kinnow, domestic prices, population of importing countries, domestic exchange rate, exchange rate of importing countries, domestic production, and distance between trading partners were ...

Mensah Gertrude Dzifa1, Christian Larbi Ayisi2,* and Elliot Haruna Alhassan1

...d 9.31 respectively. The economic conversion ratio (ECR) recorded for this ratio was significantly different amongst treatments and ranged between 4.42±0.04 to 6.19±0.14. Overall, the findings indicate that shea nut meal can be used as a substitute for fish meal up to 25% without negative effects on growth and feed utilization in O. niloticus.

...

Omer Eyuboglu

...ronment and marine based economic activities and applications. The transportation of NIS causes a decline in fish industries, spoilage of culture fishing stocks, rising production costs, adverse effects on human health and changes in biological diversity. The most prominent alien species in Turkish Black Sea waters are  species invasions which are witnessed in the Black Sea. The Black Sea, which has incurred significant losses in biodiversity due to the i...

Muhammad Salman*, Muhammad Hamayoon Khan, Muhammad Zahid, Gul Zamin Khan, Fazli Rahim and Usman Khalique

...Pakistan causing massive economic losses. Experiments were executed to reveal the ovipositional preference of B. zonata for four selected fruits belonging to different plant families, viz., banana (Musa acuminate), persimmon (Diospyros kaki), apple (Malus domestica) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The study was performed under free choice conditions by exposing all the tested fruits in the same arena to B. zonata female adults. Results revealed that tested ...

Hassan Ali1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1* and Muhammad Imran Hamid2

...era: Dermestidae), is an economically important stored grain and quarantine pest. It has developed considerable resistance to phosphine and other frequently used grain protectants. This situation necessitates looking for alternate biorational control options such as botanical and microbial insecticides. This in-vitro study assessed the anti-insect potential of four local plant extracts and two promising microbial formulations against 5th instar larvae of T. gr...

Sonali Menamvar1,2,3, Kirubakaran Vinod Kumar1, Veeregowda Muniveerappa Belamaranahally2, Yella Narasimha Reddy3, Rathnamma Doddamane2, Shrikrishna Isloor2, Ramesh Poojari Thimmaiah2, Gurrappanaidu Govindaraj1, Bibek Ranjan Shome1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan1* 

...rosis is one of the most economically important diseases of the cattle and buffaloes population worldwide and is caused by serovars of pathogenic Leptospira. A pilot study was conducted in some of the dairy farms located in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, endemic states of India, during 2017 to investigate the seropositivity of bovine leptospirosis in dairy animals and associated risk factors at the farm level. The semi-structured questionnaire was designed as p...

Zulu Blantina Fangele, Tyasi Thobela Louis, Gunya Busisiwe* 

...chickens are known to be economically, socially, and culturally important to the people of Africa, especially those from marginalised communities. Although these chickens are associated with poor productivity in terms of the number of eggs laid, most consumers prefer their flavoursome meat. Despite that, there has been a research gap in the genetic, physiological, and nutritional aspects of indigenous chickens of Africa over the past decade. The use of citric ...

Naila Shahzadi1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1*, Shaukat Ali1, Muhammad Farooq Bhatti2, Azizullah1, Shafaat Yar Khan3, Abdul Khaliq4

...e and methods to improve economic and biological traits through diet supplementation have been discussed.
...

Muhammad Hanif Khan1, Syed Muhammad Suhail2, Hayaz uddin1, Aitbar Khan3, Rashid Ahmed Magsi3, Rajwali Khan2*, Iftikhar Ahmed2, Asim Ijaz2 and Khalid Khan2

Ali Zohaib1*, Muzzammil Hussain1, Iftikhar Ahmad1, Mushtaq Ali2, Tahira Tabassum3 and Adnan Bashir1
...tion duration, yield and economic benefits of different Basmati rice varieties is imperative for enhancing the output of rice-wheat cropping system. Hence, two-year study was accomplished to find out the differences in growth, crop maturation duration, yield and economic benefits of Basmati rice varieties (Super Basmati, PK-1121 aromatic, Chenab Basmati, Kissan Basmati, Punjab Basmati, Noor Basmati and NIAB Basmati 2016) in ...

Evrim Sönmez

... in legumes. It is among economically important species in our country since it reduces the germination value and nutritional value of seeds. As a result of understanding the effects of entomopathogenic fungi on pests in recent years, researchers have also focused on fungi in fighting pests. These fungi, which are sold as bioinsecticides in the market, are generally preferred by producers who want to engage in organic or environmentally sensitive agriculture. ...
Mubashir Ali Rather1, Ambreen Hamadani2*, Syed Shanaz2, Nusrat Nabi2, Showkat Ahanger1, H. Hamadani2, Ruksana Shah2
...the core activity of the economically weaker sections in Jammu and Kashmir, India. The state has a rich diversity of sheep genetic resources. However, concerning wool traits, the production potential of these breeds was poor. Accordingly, crossbreeding was taken up the breeding policy to improve the genetic worth of these breeds. As a result, a fast-growing and fine wool-producing sheep strain Kashmir Merino was developed. The present article summarizes the pe...

Abdul Wadood Khan1, Sabahat Subhan1*, Asif Ali Abro2 and Riaz Shahid3 

...e agriculture sector and economic growth of the Pakistan from 1980-2018. To analyze the long run relationship among the variables, the Autoregressive Distributed Lag model was used. While constructing the production function, most of the common variables in the production function were utilized. In the construction of productivity and input quantity index, the data of input and output were employed respectively. The data of GDP, capital and labour was used in ...

Samah Samir, Amal Awad*, Gamal Younis 

...ishes that causes severe economic losses in the aquaculture industry. Edwardsiella tarda was categorized as a serious food- and waterborne infection that causes a high rate of mortality in people with liver cirrhosis. The goal of this study was to explore the prevalence, virulence-related genes (edw1, cds1, qseC and pvsA), and antibiotic susceptibility profile of E. tarda in Nile tilapia collected from Egyptian fish farms. Between December 2019 and March 2020,...

Huapu Chen1, Zhiyuan Li1, Yaorong Wang1, Wei Yang2,*, Hongjuan Shi1, Shuisheng Li1,3, Chunhua Zhu1 and Guangli Li1,*

...Scatophagus argus) is an economically important farm fish species found in Southeast China. Production of all-female spotted scat population with superior growth traits can significantly increase farmer’s benefits due to its sexual dimorphism in growth. Herein, the sex ratio and differences in morphometric traits were observed between females and males in a full-sib population of S. argus. Then the correlation between these traits and their effects on bo...

Guo-dong Zhao1,2*, He-ying Qian1,2, Yi-ling Zhang1,2, Gang Li1, 2, Jian Tang1, 2 and An-ying Xu1,2*

...ilkworm, Bombyx mori, an economically important insect, is also used as a model insect for investigation. However, pesticide exposure often causes huge economic losses to the sericulture. The fat body is an important intermediate metabolic tissue, which is involved in detoxification in insects. In this study, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing was performed to investigate the gene expression differences between two sil...

Djadouni Fatima* and Meliani Amina

...ese animals are of great economic importance to humans. Poor nutrition, poor breeding, poor hygiene and poor management systems are the most responsible factors of these diseases that cause annually significant livestock losses affecting the economy, animal diversity and ecological balance. These diseases are transmitted among animals in different ways and endemic especially in large and common pastures and among the causes of their spreads are contact, vector...
Sajad Ali1*, Naeem Ur Rehman Khatak1, Shahab E. Saqib2 and Saleem ur Rehman1
...t productivity and socio-economic factors between owner and tenant wheat growers, a log-log regression model and an independent unpaired sample t-test was used in conjunction with face-to-face interview schedule. In addition, a dummy variable was added to the production function to analyze the impact of tenancy status on wheat productivity. The results revealed that majority (57.1%) of the wheat growers in the study were rented land for their farming and livel...

Mubashar Ahmad, Roheela Yasmeen*, Aisha Waheed Qurashi, Muhammad Hassan Ali Shah 

...ecreation, education and economic benefits. The physical needs of animals are even met in captivity however the conditions of confinement and exposure to humans can result in physiological stress. The stress response consists of the suite of hormonal and physiological reactions which are helpful in an animal’s survival. Cortisol levels are frequently used to determine the stress in animals. The elevation in cortisol levels are associated with increased s...

Masudul Haq Wani and Arshad Bhat*

...in view the benefits and economic value of this legendary crop, the present study is undertaken in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, which enjoys virtual monopoly in the cultivation of saffron, producing around 99 percent of the total saffron production. Due to technological change, saffron production has witnessed a substantial increase during last decade. Keeping the production potential of production system module of saffron in consideration an ex-ante, ex-po...

Ouedraogo Oumar1,2, Tianhoun Denté Fidèle2,4*, Séré Modou3, Kaboré Adama2, Tamboura H. Hamidou2 and Belem Adrien Marie Gaston4

...the prevalence and socio-economic incidence of bovine tuberculosis. For this purpose, daily monitoring of cattle from various farms and slaughtered at the slaughter area was carried out from February to June 2019 during ante and post-mortem inspections. The results of the analysis of the data collected during these inspections revealed that 1,716 cattle of local breeds, consisting of 875 females and 841 males, were slaughtered and checked by the veterinary ins...

Bridget Adah1*, Clara Kwanashie2, Haruna Kazeem2 and Samuel Mailafia1

...as 4.5%. Considering the economic and zoonotic significance of this organism, we recommend that proper handling of pork and associated by products, as well as occupationally predisposed personnel should be of great importance especially pig farmers and veterinarians. The findings of this study indicates the need for further research to illuminate predisposing factors, patterns of distribution and clinical manifestation of leptospirosis in porcine inhabitants i...

Manish Gautam1*, Pravakar Kattel2 and Krishna Kaphle3

...Skin Disease (LSD) is an economically important transboundary viral disease of livestock belonging to the genus Capripoxvirus was reported which was said to have originated from Zambia in Africa. LSD can be transmitted by both the vector and non-vector routes and is mainly seen in the rainy season. It mainly affects cattle and buffalo manifesting nodules in skin and mucous membrane with a high fever. Since the first report of this disease from the Morang distr...

Muhammad Asif1*, Ahmad Ali Shahid1,2 and Nasir Ahmad3

...>Tomato is a beneficial, economically important and highly consumable crop. Several fungal diseases may affect its yield. Early blight is one of its most destructive diseases. Biocontrol agents are the best-known source to minimize the attack of pathogen. Tomato leaves infected with early blight symptoms were collected from Lahore. Pathogen was isolated on PDA and its morphological characters were studied. All the characters used for identification of pathogen...

Muhammad Tahir Latif1*, Muzzammil Hussain1, Ayesha Latif2, Majid Hamid Bajwa1, Iftikhar Ahmad1, Ali Zohaib1, Naeem Faisal1 and Muhammad Hamza3

...son 2020 to estimate the economic viability and profitability analysis of mechanically transplanted rice (MTR) in comparison to conventional manual transplanting (CT). Convenience and snow-ball non probability sampling method was used due to less adoption rate of MTR with a sample size of 240. Among targeted MTR growers 72% had 6-row riding type mechanical transplanters (MT), 18% had 4-row walk after type MT and 10% had 8-row riding type MT. Super Basmati and ...

Md. Taimur Islam1*, Mirza Mienur Meher2, Anas Bin Harun3 and Md. Golam Haider1

 

...erty alleviation and the economic development of Bangladesh. However, poultry diseases are one of the most important limitations to the growth of the sustainable poultry industry in the country. Among these diseases, respiratory diseases are the foremost hazard to sustainable poultry production in Bangladesh. Avian influenza (AI), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Avian Metapneumovirus (AMPV), infectious co...

Muhammad Anwar Ul Haq1*, Tariq Mukhtar1, Muhammad Inam-ul-Haq1 and Azeem Khalid2

...es, Meloidogyne spp. are economically very important and cause losses to the tune of $ 125 billion per year throughout the world. The present studies were aimed to evaluate 21 eggplant genotypes against the most destructive nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, under greenhouse conditions. Of all the genotypes/varieties of eggplant, Janak and Pala were found resistant and moderately resistant to M. incognita respectively. Fifteen varieties/lines viz. EP-972, Kokila...

Erum Iqbal*, Firoza Kazi and Saboohi Raza

....) is the most important economic cereal crop in the world and Pakistan stands in eighth position in global wheat production. The wheat crop is susceptible to several diseases and nematode pests. The most important nematode parasites are cereal cyst nematodes, root-knot nematodes, lesion nematodes, seed-gall nematodes and stem nematodes. In this review article status of global wheat production is presented and its associated parasitic nematodes have been discu...

Muhammad Ismail1,*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1 and Umair Abbas1 and Riaz Hussain2

...phritidae) is one of the economic pests of horticultural crops. This invasive species causes substantial economic loss to citrus produce each year in Pakistan. Farmers rely on persistent synthetic insecticides for fruit fly control. Insecticidal phytoextracts are biorational alternates to hazardous synthetic insecticides. This study evaluated the efficacy of aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), garlic (Alli...

Abd El-Moniem Ali S. Mahgoub, Ahmed Mohamed Abd El-Hafeez, Mahmoud Yassin Mohamed*, Al-Moataz Bellah Mahfouz Shaarawy, Mohamed Ibrahim Nassar

... reflected improving the economic efficiency of growing Ossimi sheep without affecting their growth rate and semen quality.
 
Keywords | Ossimi sheep, Sesban hay, Clover hay, Growth, Semen quality
...

Ida Bagus Oka Winaya1*, Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi1, Putu Henrywaesa Sudipa2, I Gusti Ketut Suarjana2

...sease causes significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. This study aims to determine the histopathological changes of meningoencephalitis and arthritis in post-weaning piglets suspected of streptococcosis. The samples were 35 cadaver of post weaning piglets that showed muscle spasm and swollen joint at several villages in Badung Regency, Indonesia. Samples of the brain and synovial tissue were processed using hematoxylin-eosin dyes (HE). On h...

Abid Hussain1, Mubbashira Nazir2*, Saira Batool2 and Sidra Majeed1

...e been carried out. Socioeconomic characteristics of the adopter farmers have also been studied. The study is based on primary data that was collected from 110 sample farmers in the year 2018. It is found that adopters of the gypsum technology are more educated, having large family size, operational land and livestock holdings. Gypsum application at a rate of 0.26 ton per acre doubled the productivity (26.80 mounds/ 40kg) of groundnut crop than without its use...

Abdul Qadoos1, Muhammad Bakhtiar2*, Wajiha Seerat3, Asma Bibi4, Sohail Rahman1, Muhammad Noman Khan5, Ghulam Yaseen6, Mamoona Munir7 and Sadiqullah Khan8

...148 kg ha-1) and highest economical yield (38%). Regarding Zn levels Plots treated with Zn @ 16 kg ha-1 produce more plants m-2 (295), taller plants (93.5 cm), maximum spike length (10.57cm), more grains in spike (49), higher 1000-Grains weight (41.9 g), maximum biomass (10337 kg ha-1), greater grain yield (4007 kg ha-1) and economical yield (38%). It was concluded that wheat performed better in terms of yield and yield cont...

Nimra Altaf1, Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Hamza Latif1, Muhammad Zeeshan1, Gulfam Yousuf1 and Muhammad Afzal2

...e insect pest of various economic crops. This species was first reported in Pakistan during 2019, and is now an emerging threat to Pakistan’s Agriculture. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a synthetic insecticide Chlorantraniliprole in comparison to different concentrations of single botanical, i.e., neem leaf extract @ (50 ppm and 100 ppm) against FAW larvae in maize. Our findings showed a significant effect (P < 0.001) ...

Syed Muhammad Amir1*, Shehzad Khan2, Asif Ali Abro3, Ehsan Inamullah4 and Tahir Mehmood5

...rings improvement in the economic condition in terms of reduced expenditure (on buying other fuel energy materials and on buying chemical fertilizers), and in terms of higher earnings from selling trees. In light of the findings from this research, biogas technology has been proved to have great potential to improve the quality of life of farming households which in turn would positively affect the agriculture sector. 

...

Mohamed E. El-Speiy1, Tarek A. Sadak1, Mohamed A. Abd-Elaal1, Ayman M. Khalifah2, Amr S. Morsy2*

...Zn treatments. Regarding economic efficiency, each AG2 or AG1Zn and AG2Zn represented the most promising treatments. Results referred that an individual dose of (AG2) or its combination (AG1Zn and AG2Zn) maximizes the growth performance and economic efficiency of growing rabbits.
 
Keywords | Bioactive components, Carcass traits, Growing rabbits, Medicinal plants, Synergistic effect
...
Basel A. Abokhadra, Samah M. Mosad, Sahar Abd El Rahman*
...t and causes significant economic losses to domestic cattle in Egypt. Although BoHV-5 mainly causes encephalitis in calves, the virus is excreted in nasal discharge under stress factors, so herpesvirus latency reactivation cycle is the hallmark of the disease. In the present study, molecular screening of 60 nasal swabs, collected from clinically suspected animals, was established by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting glycoprotein B (gB) gene. Six PCR po...
Genevieve R. Tabon1,2, Noraine P. Medina2, Mary Rose D. Uy-De Guia3, Claro N. Mingala2,3*
...and studied due to their economic impact. Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene has been linked to being one of the major genes affecting litter size in swine. The Philippine swine breed is not commonly used on a commercial scale but in backyard production. The aim of the study was to assess the allelic variation in 30 Philippine native pigs (PNP). Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was done to evaluate the genotypes of ESR...

A. El-Shemy1*, Hoda M. Mekky2, M. A. Bosila2, A. M. Allam1, Kh. M. Elbayoumi2, M. M. Amer3 

...tial mortality and great economic losses. We collected liver samples from three duck farms representing Muscovy and Pekin breeds at ages ranging from 2 to 4 weeks and located in two Egyptian governorates between August and October 2018. The affected ducks were suffering from a short course of nervous signs, and mortality was high, reaching 75% within 3–4 days. Implementation of one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for process...