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Nematicidal Activity of Withanolides from Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal against Meloidogyne incognita (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae)

Nematicidal Activity of Withanolides from Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal against Meloidogyne incognita (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae)

Saima Mehar1 and Salma Javed2*

1Department of Chemistry, SardarBahadur Khan Women University, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan; 2National Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

 
*Correspondence | Salma Javed, National Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan; Email: sajaved@uok.edu.pk

ABSTRACT

Plants are the one of the magnificent and captivating source of natural bio-pesticides. The currentstudy was performed for phytochemical analysis and to assess the nematicidal and nematostatic potential of crude extract of Withania coagulans. It is known for its withanolide class of chemical compounds. The biological assessment of two primary fractions of W. coagulans crude extract, chloroform and butanol, is the focus of the current study. Crude extracts were tested against Meloidogyne incognitain vitro conditions. The second stage juveniles (J2) were exposed at 24, 48 and 72 hours in different concentrations of plant extracts. During in-vitro condition inhibition of egg hatchability and J2 juveniles’ mortality varied according to the concentration of plant extract. WC=1 showed 100% mortality after 48 hrs of exposure at 1% with the lethal concentration (LC50) values 0.168 mg/land all four concentration are 100 % toxic at 72 h of exposure. W-56D proved to be 100 % lethal at 0.1 and 0.5 % concentration after 48 h of exposure with (LC50) 0.065 mg/l. The lowest mortality was found from WC-3 and the mortality rate was found to be 30-50 %with (LC50) values 0.135 mg/l, 0.187 mg/land 0.145 mg/lafter 24, 48 and 72 hrs of exposure. Compound C1 also proved to havehigh level of virulent effect rangingbetween 75 – 100 %. The isolated compounds were analysed through spectroscopy methods such as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV), Mass spectrometry (MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The structure of isolated chemical components employing bioassay-directed fractionation of both extracts. Concentration of the extract was directly proportional to the mortality of second stage juveniles, the resulted, six withanolides comprising coagulin E, G and J, withaperuvin C and triterpenoid, betulinic acid and the pure isolated bio active constituents also showed the 100% significance mortality with the constant concentration of 1 and 0.5 mg/lagainst the M. incognita. The present study revealed that withanolides compounds efficiently controlled and reduced population of root- knot nematodes.

 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 54, Iss. 5, Pages 2003-2500

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