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Investigating the Efficacy of Various Plant Essential Oils in Controlling Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Investigating the Efficacy of Various Plant Essential Oils in Controlling Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Khadija Akram1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Arshad1, Samina Khalid2, Hamza Latif1, Aqsa Amjad1, Nahdia Perveen1, Emaan Sajid1

1Department of Entomology, University of Sargodha, 40100, Sargodha, Pakistan
2Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS IUniversity, Islamabad, Vehari Campus 61100, Pakistan
Corresponding Author: Muhammad Irfan Ullah


The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an important insect pest that causes significant economic losses and food insecurity in stored grain products. This research aimed to assess the efficacy of plant essential oils against T. castaneum. The study found that cinnamon oil exhibited the highest insecticidal activity, with a 100% mortality rate for all tested concentrations and time intervals for adult beetles. Clove oil also displayed significant insecticidal activity, resulting in mortality rates between 68.0% to 86.6% for the highest concentration (6.0%). However, lemon and orange oils exhibited the lowest insecticidal activity against adult T. castaneum. Additionally, cinnamon oil demonstrated 100% mortality in the immature stage within 72 hours of the application of higher concentrations (6.0%), while a higher concentration of clove oil resulted in 88.0% larval mortality within 96 hours. Probit analysis demonstrated that cinnamon oil had the lowest LC50 values across all time intervals, indicating the highest potency in killing T. castaneum. Clove oil also had a relatively low LC50 value compared to orange and lemon oil. Furthermore, cinnamon and clove oils displayed negative effects on pupal formation and adult emergence of T. castaneum. Based on these findings, cinnamon and clove oils can be recommended as natural alternatives to chemical pesticides to control T. castaneum in grain storage facilities due to their high efficacy.
Novelty Statement | Our study reveals the remarkable insecticidal activity of cinnamon and clove oils, showing their potential as potent natural alternatives to conventional chemical pesticides. The findings underscore a promising avenue for sustainable pest management strategies, emphasizing the pivotal role of plant essential oils in mitigating economic losses and ensuring food security in grain storage facilities.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 3, pp. 1001-1500


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