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Urban Residential Asthmatics Facing the Hazards of Indoor Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentrations in Lahore, Pakistan

Urban Residential Asthmatics Facing the Hazards of Indoor Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentrations in Lahore, Pakistan

Syed Shahid Imran Bukhari

Government Graduate College of Science Wahdat Road Lahore, Pakistan.

Corresponding author: Syed Shahid Imran Bukhari


This study provides information about the indoor air quality (IAQ) of local asthmatics. Lahore, being a metropolitan city, is among the most polluted cities Pakistan. IAQ has been a matter of public concern in the country. Asthma is a common respiratory disorder. CO2 is components of the air we breathe; type of house and room is directly linked with its concentration. CO2 concentration is a surrogate indicator for the assessment of IAQ and ventilation efficacy. Average indoor CO2 can be helpful to identify ventilation system performance. Data was gathered from 50 asthmatic homes with natural ventilation located throughout the nine administrative towns of Lahore, Pakistan. The levels of CO2, the rate of air change, and the rate of ventilation per person per second were all closely observed in each home. Using CO2, the ventilation rates were commuted using the tracer gas approach. The CO2 monitor was used to measure the levels of CO2 indoors. With SPSS (v.22), statistically significant correlations between open and closed windows of indoor CO2 levels have been found. Every micro environment’s lowest and highest air exchange rate per hour (ACH) was evaluated, and its effects on asthma were noted. Elevated symptoms of asthma have been linked to low ventilation rates. The findings indicated that the ambient air’s CO2 concentration above regulatory limits set by NEQS (National Environmental Quality Standards) and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), however observed elevated concentrations were in accordance with the given low occupancy (4 people/100 m2). Other related characteristics included socioeconomic status, smoking, and cleanliness. According to the results, improved ventilation rates per person in a normal home can reduce symptoms by up to 80%. Correlation analysis and one-way ANOVA were used to assess relationships between indoor CO2 concentration and ventilation rate. The high rates of CO2 contamination in the homes under examination pose a major risk to the health of those who have asthma, especially and occupants of such houses normally. Curative steps are needed to safeguard the people at risk. 
Novelty Statement | This study is unique in reporting the risk of high indoor carbon dioxide concentrations for asthmatic patients of people living the urban areas of Lahore Pakistan.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 4, pp. 1501-2000


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