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Murtaza Ali*, Yasser Durrani and Muhammad Ayub

...nt, percent acidity, pH, moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, taste, texture, color and overall acceptability). Statistically minimum decrease was observed in water activity, pH, moisture content and organoleptic characters. While, stable increase was noted in percent acidity and ash content during storage. It was concluded and recommended on the basis of mentioned facts that mulberry fruit dehydrated by using...

 Ishfaq Ahmed, Ihsan Mabood Qazi and Suraiya Jamal

...h (0.52–1.01%) and moisture contents (4.47–7.09%) showed significant (P < 0.05) increase, while fat content (1.41-1.17%) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease by blending WF with BRF. Similarly, water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI) and swelling power (SP) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease as the concentration of wheat flour in the blends increases. The values for WAI, WSI and SP were 4.73–6.18 g/g, 1.98&nd...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

...< 0.05) increased the moisture and protein content. The addition of gums further augmented the moisture level owing to owing to their water retention properties. The melt-ability, flow-ability and yield of cheese decreased significantly (p < 0.05) on reducing the fat level, as anticipated. However, the addition of gums gradually improved these aspects with higher values for cheese containing guar gum as compared to xan...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1*, Lorenzo Gallus2, Sara Ferrando2, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Abdul Mateen5

...to four times daily. The moisture, protein and ash contents of whole body of the fish were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by feeding frequency. The highest lipid contents were observed in fish at feeding frequency of three to four times daily. The condition factor (CF), viscerosomatic index (VSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were significantly (P< 0.05) higher in fish at ration levels from 2.5 to 4.5% BW d−1 and feeding frequency of three to ...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...at lines under different moisture levels, this research was conducted during 2006-07 in the field conditions of Tel Hadya and Breda i.e. the leading research venues of International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria. The experimental material comprised of forty synthetic derived wheat lines along with eight check cultivars was planted in alpha lattice design with three replications. Genotypes exhibited significant (p≤0.01) va...

Muhammad Aslam Shahid, Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Niamatullah

...109.48, 104.83 kg/tree), moisture % (68.17, 68.20) were recorded when pollinated with M2. Highest TSS % (35.81, 36.28) reducing sugars % (5.15, 5.11), non reducing sugars % (13.82, 13.44) and total sugars % (18.97, 18.55) were recorded in M6 during both years of investigation. These results suggest that for maximum fruit set, yield and quality, the Dhakki date should be pollinated with pollens of M2 and M6.

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Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3
...l properties i.e. moisture and pH were determined by oven drying and pH meter, respectively. Viable fungal count of the feed samples was estimated by using spread plate technique. Identification of fungal isolates was carried out on the basis of cultural and morphological characters by using slide culture technique. While mean moisture percentage was recorded as 5.3% with a significant difference (P<0.05), the pH w...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
.../sup>), weight loss (%), moisture contents (%), taste, decay fruits (%) and total soluble solids (TSS). The experimental result showed that both the varieties were significantly influenced the fruit decay (%), TSS (%), taste and moisture content (%), while firmness (kg/cm2) and weight loss (%) was found non-significant. Also storage interval significantly affected all the parameters. Interactive affect of va...

1S. A. Khan and 2S. Jha

Effect of dates of sowing, moisture regimes, varieties and weather factors on incidences of aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in rape and mustard
... 6 dates of sowing and 2 moisture regimes to understand aphid population dynamics during different phases of growth of rainfed vis-à-vis irrigated rape and mustard crops, and work out relationships between aphid population and weather parameters for its forewarning. Results revealed that initial incidence times of aphid varied from 19 November to 3 December, depending upon dates of sowing done during 1 October to 5 November, which fall under recommended...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
... total wet weight is the moisture of gonads. In females, Interquartile Range for gonad moisture content (GMC) was lower than the males or gonads of males had less moisture in compare with females. The operational sex ratio of E. mathaei was female-biased (OSR=0.36). The maximum and minimum of OSR was recorded in September (0.46± 0.11), and April (0.11± 0.11), respectiv...
Oaj Khurshid1*, Naureen Aurangzeb1, Ayaz Khan1, Alia Naz1, Abdullah khan1, Sobia Nisa2 and Sehrish Sajawal3
...organic matter, adequate moisture content and C/N ratio. On windrow composting, not only the bulk of the waste was compacted but also formed a powdery earthy stinking soil-like, compost material. All valued factors in the compost samples were found to be within the acceptable limits set by international standard. The pH fluctuated between 7.5-8.1, moisture 35% and organic matter 43%, and has adequate quantity of plant nutrie...
Aneela Qureshi1, Ammara Ainee1*, Muhammad Nadeem1, Masooma Munir1,2*, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi1, Saqib Jabbar2
...ctivity, texture, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, NFE and fiber content changed significantly (p<0.05). Gross energy level in cake which is desirable by consumers was reduced but high fiber cake was dark colored, low in volume and with increased hardness. Treatment (T3) containing 5.6g grapefruit albedo powder shows significantly (p<0.05) higher sensory scores in term of color (8.02±0.50), flavor (8.04±0.29), taste (8.18&plus...
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
...(56%). Although the high moisture content was measured in both litter substrates and the high frequency of severe FPD was estimated in both groups of broilers, pelleted straw showed lower moisture content, occurrence and severity of FPD (2.56±0.19) comparing to chopped wheat straw (3.20±0.13) at the end of the experiment. Further research can be directed to the technological improvement of chopped and pelleted ...
Netti Aryani1, Azrita2, Ainul Mardiah3 and Hafrijal Syandri2*
... fiber, 12% ash, and 12% moisture as a percentage of fish body weight, with three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed three times per day at 09:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The experiment was carried out for 120 days. Each month, 30 fish were removed from each of the floating net cages to be measured and weighed. The biomass of fish was calculated, and the amount of feed was adjusted. The feeding rate significantly (p< 0.05) influenced the final fish weight, n...
Aqsa Qayyum1*, Masooma Munir1, Saeeda Raza1, Mussarat Gillani1, Saima Kanwal1, Nouman Rashid1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Zarmina Gillani2
...f pea flour in biscuits, moisture, carbohydrates and caloric value decreased from (1.84% - 1.33%), (62.87% - 54.57%), (525.64 Kcal /100 g to 502.84 Kcal /100 g) respectively while ash, fat, fiber, protein, iron, zinc, magnesium and manganese contents increased significantly (p < 0.01). There was a non-significant (p > 0.05) effect on the color, flavor, taste and texture of biscuits. So, it is concluded that replacement of wheat flour with pea flour up to...

Abdus Subhan1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2 and M. Jamil Khan

... compost treatments. The moisture content and water holding capacity revealed non – significant effect of the treatments. It may be concluded from the current research that water use efficiency in term of grain yield was higher in the treatment plots receiving mineral fertilizer but compost and manures were comparable and showed significant improvement in the soil properties.  

...

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

...il productivity and soil moisture conservation are two major problems of rainfed agriculture. Thus, to address these issues, a two year field study was carried out at Agronomic Research Area of University Research Farm of PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi during 2012-14.The effects of different tillage systemscombined with glyphosate herbicide on soil moisture content,bulk density and porosity associated with wheat...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus
...of fish meat showed that moisture, protein, lipid, ash and crude fiber were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by salinity level. The hematological parameters like hematocrit, cholesterol and plasma triglycerides were similar among fish fed on different salinity level (P < 0.05).
...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Dastagir4, Sara Ferrando5, Lorenzo Gallus5, Asad Ali Muhammad1,6, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman2 
...(53.16% – 53.26%), moisture (71.16% – 71.26%), lipids (2.49% – 2.52%), ash (4.16% – 4.18%) contents of fish whole body were not significantly (P>0.05) different at varying salinity levels. Mean values of water quality were found acceptable for tilapia i.e. temperature 28.42±0.08°C, dissolved oxygen 7.48±0.06 mg/L, pH 7.64±0.04 and ammonia 0.022±0.004 mg/L. Relationship between log body we...

Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik** and M. Aslam Gill***

EFFECT OF CROPPING SYSTEMS, TILLAGE PRACTICES AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON WHEAT STAND ESTABLISHMENT UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...05) higher residual soil moisture content was available in fallow-wheat system which resulted in better wheat emergence. This ultimately resulted in vigorous crop stand establishment. The biomass harvest observed at 2-3 leaf stage in the fallow-wheat system was higher than other systems under study.
...

Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Khalid Naseem, Muhammad Amjad, Amer Mumtaz and Saeeda Raza*

... grains, damaged grains, moisture, ash, protein (N x 5.7), wet and dry gluten, falling number, and minerals (copper, manganese, iron, zinc). It was observed that wheat samples varied considerably within each region and also between regions. Attock region samples had highest test weight (80.50 kg hl -1), protein (11.80 %) and lowest nonedible foreign matter (0.45%) and broken/shrunken grains (0.88 %). Highest wet and dry gluten (27.44 % and 9.29 %) while other ...

Saeeda Raza, Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Amer Mumtaz, Nouman Siddiqui, Khalid Nasim and Muhammad Amjad*

...No significant change in moisture content, peroxide value and free fatty acid were observed during three months storage in double polyethylene bags at ambient temperature (20-25 ºC).

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Haq Nawaz Malik*, Iffat Ara**, Muhammad Naeem, Mozammil Hussain, M. Hanif Munawwar and M. Yousaf

... 100 grain weight, grain moisture and grain yield. The hybrids NT-6622 and NT- 6651 ranked top and second in grain yield by producing 7842 and 7759 kg ha-1, respectively. Generally the hybrids produced more grain yield than the open pollinated varieties. Days to 50% tasseling ranged from 47.33 (EV-1098) to 64 (NT- 6632) while for silking varied from 47.67 (EV-1098) to 63.33 (30-K-95). The variety Soan-3 (149 cm) was the shortest and hybrid 30-K-95 (202.3 cm) w...

Akhlaq Ahmad, M. Anwar Arain*, Rahila Nazli**, Syed Anser Rizvi***,
Mubarik Ahmed* and Farzana Ibrahim****

Corresponding author: dr.akhlaqahmad@yahoo.com

COST EFFECTIVENESS OF UNDER-SHEET AND WHOLE GODOWN FUMIGATION OF BAGGED WHEAT
... trials that the average moisture content increased by 3%, grain damage increased by 12% -1 and grain weight decreased by 6 kghl in whole godown fumigations compared to similar treatment carried out under the cover of polyethylene sheet. The cost effectiveness of the treatments was determined, considering the cost of the materials and labour. It was estimated that a single fumigation treatment in under-sheet stacks was around Rs. 1.05 million less than the who...

 Muhammad Yaqoob*, Rukhsana Anjum, Mumtaz Hussain and Muhammad Jahangir Shah**

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND CHARACTER ASSOCIATION IN SOME CHINESE HYBRID RICE UNDER DRY CONDITIONS
...rop was maintained under moisture stress conditions. The data on various plant traits including, days to panicle initiation, panicle length, spikelet fertility, days to maturity, plant height, number of grains per panicle, number of productive tillers, 1000 grain weight and paddy yield were recorded. The results of analysis indicated a high range of genetic variation among various hybrids for plant height, number of grains per panicle, number of productive til...

 Munir Ahmad* and Asif Ali Mirani**

HEATED AIR DRYING OF GROUNDNUT
...to dry it down to a safe moisture level by sun drying. Therefore, the chance for developing aflatoxins in it is high. To solve this problem of the groundnut growers, a low cost mobile flat-bed dryer designed and developed at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute (ABEI), National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad was evaluated for drying groundnut. The dryer had been found capable to dry about 1818 kg groundnut from 23.3%

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-Din*, Sikandar Khan Tanveer*, Maqsood Qamar* and Syed Haider Abbas*

EVALUATION OF ADVANCE WHEAT LINES FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN RAINFED ENVIRONMENT
... exposed to limited soil moisture during early growth period and high temperature stress during reproductive growth stage. Better yield under stressful environment is the main objective while evaluating genotypes for rainfed ecologies. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan to evaluate the agronomic traits of three advance lines (NR-397, NR-379 and NR-400) in comparison to released variety (NARC-09) und...

 Saima Rani*, Hassnain Shah*, Umar Farooq** and Bushra Rehman**

SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...es, lagged area and good moisture availability at sowing time positively influence the area allocation decision of the farmers. But yield for mung and fertilizers price for both pulses were insignificant factors in influencing the farmers' decision to allocate land. Production of pluses mainly depends on area under the crop. Pulses area under irrigated conditions and sowing season rainfall positively influence the production of gram and mung. Technological fac...

 Tosif Tabassam*, Tariq Sultan**, M.Ehsan Akhtar**, M.Mahmood-ulHassan** and Arshad Ali**

SUITABILITY OF DIFFERENT FORMULATED CARRIERS FOR SUSTAINING MICROBIAL SHELF LIFE
... good adhesion capacity, moisture holding capacity, nutrient contents and investigated for microbial shelf life. Significant difference regarding microbial survival was observed between different formulations as well as between different incubation intervals. Among different carrier tested the 8 8 -1 FC-4 supported the maximum population of 33.5x10 - 10.8x10 cfu g for 8 8 -1 MR-8 and 32.6x10 - 7.2x10 cfu g for MR-5. Results showed that the required population ...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Muhammad Arshad*, Maryam Kamal**, Doulat Baig *, M. Tariq*, Talat Gilani* and Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY STUDIES FOR SEED YIELD TRAITS IN SUNFLOWER
...eight, harvest index and moisture contents. Among male parents, the highest
significant value for yield was observed in RHA-854. The potential parent lines with highest GCA estimates can be utilized in different desirable combinations for varietal improvement through breeding programme. The cross of CMS-303 x RHA-271 expressed the highest specific combining ability (SCA) value for yield while CMS 303 x RHA-854 hybrid exhibited the highest SCA estim...

Samina Qamer*, Iram Nasir**, Um-Habiba Zafar**, Salma Sultana** and Tayyaba Sultana**

BIO-CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF HONEY PRODUCED BY APIS MELLIFERA HONEYBEE COLLECTED FROM JHANG, BAHAWALPUR, MULTAN, JHELUM AND KALAR KAHAR AREAS
...ible limits. The average moisture contents were 18.30%, 18.35%, 17.66%,16.27% and 18.7% from Jhang, Bahawalpur, KalarKahar, Multanand, and Jhelum, respectively. Similarly, the pH 4.26, 4.50, 3.91, 3.72 and 3.33; electrical conductivity, 204.67mScm-1 ,137.8 mScm-1 , 202.62mScm-1 ,277.33mScm-1 and 196.96mScm -1;free acidity 25.80 meqkg -1, 26.16 meqkg-1 , 24.97 meqkg -1, 30.25 meqkg , 25.4 meqkg -1; lactone 8.17 meqkg -1, 6.52 meqkg-1 , 6.68 meqkg -1, 5 meqkg -1...

 Abdul Razaq*, Muhammad Jamal Khan*, Tahir Sarwar* and Mohammad Jamal Khan**

EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION, SOWING METHODS AND MULCHING ON WHEAT YIELD AND NITROGEN UPTAKE
...t irrigation (DI ). Soil moisture was continuously monitored and full irrigation was determined on the basis of 50% Management Allowed Deficit (MAD). Results indicated that sowing methods, mulching and various levels of deficit irrigation significantly (P<0.05) affected wheat yield and nitrogen uptake. Raised beds cultivation produced higher number of tillers m (415), grain yield (5.13 t ha ), biological yield (12.02 t ha ) and total nitrogen uptake (141.7 ...

 

Shakir Ullah*, Aish Muhammad*, Iqbal Hussian*, Hafeez-Ur-Rahman**, Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder***, Muhammad Din**** and Nizamud Din

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN APRICOT CULTIVARS GROWN IN GILGIT BALTISTAN PAKISTAN
...weight and percentage of moisture (r =
0.336 and 0.272). Significant correlation was found between fruit weight,
percentage of moisture (r = 0.681) shape of stone (r = 0.067). The result of
this study may be useful for identification and morphological variations of
apricot in Pakistan.
...

Najeeb Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Niamat Ullah Khan2*, Muhammad Safdar Baloch1 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan

...uate the effects of four moisture regimes on yield and fiber characteristics of two cotton genotypes. The experiment was laid out in split-plot within a randomized complete block design with three replications. Four irrigation intervals namely I1 (10 days interval), I2 (15 days interval), I3 (20 days interval) and I4 (25 days interval) were allotted to main plots while cotton genotypes (CIM-602 and CIM-616) were assigned to subplots having 10 m×3 m. Resu...

Muhammad Rehan Aslam1, Muhammad Maqsood1, Zahoor Ahmad2*, Sajjad Akhtar3, Muhammad Rizwan4 and Muhammad Usama Hameed

...as applied at 50 mm soil moisture deficit (I2). Two foliar sprays of 0.5% 0f MgSO4 (1st after 20 days of sowing and 2nd after 30 days of sowing) and irrigation at 50 mm soil moisture deficit were recommended for the improvement of quality and yield of maize.  

...

Kashif Akbar* and Muhammad Ayub 

...F0 to F6. Mean score for moisture content increased and the ranged between F0-F6 (3.24-3.29%), other physicochemical parameters showed decreasing trend like ash (0.80-0.73%), fat 24.23-23.94%), protein (8.20-7.68%), fiber (6.47-6.38%) while NFE increased slowly (57.86-58.60%). The color of the cookies ranged from F0-F6 (6.88-6.93), taste ranged F0-F6 (6.82-6.04) and texture ranged F0-F6 (6.91-6.15). Maximum overall acceptability was recorded in F2 (7.32) proce...

Muhammad Khalid1,2 and Muhammad Naeem2* 

...s percent composition of moisture, protein, lipids and carbohydrates. The purpose of this study was to affirm the proximate composition and nutritious status of Ctenopharyngodon idella. Standardized methods were used to determine the proximate composition of 72 samples. On wet weight basis, mean percentage for water was 80.76 %, ash 3.40 %, 4.31 % for fat and 11.53 % for protein in C. idella. Percent water contents showed inverse relationship with % protein (d...

Muhammad Ishfaq1*, Nadeem Akbar1, Imran Khan1, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Usman Zulfiqar1, Muhammad Ahmad1, Mumtaz Ahmad2 and Muhammad Umer Chattha1 

...xt-align: justify;">Soil moisture status and row spacing at the time of sowing are important factors that can affect crop stand establishment, yield and yield-related attributes along with quality of direct seeded rice. Farmer field-based experiment comprised two soil moisture regimes at the time of sowing: (M1 = Sowing in moist (field capacity) condition, M2= Sowing in dry condition) in main plots, while three different row...

Safina Naz1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Saeed Akhtar2, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3* and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...sed for their proximate (moisture, ash, protein and fiber) and heavy metal (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe and Cr) contents. Significant differences were found for proximate composition of canal, tubewell and sewage water irrigated vegetables. The vegetables grown with tubewell water had higher moisture, ash and fiber contents compared with those grown with canal and sewage water; whereas protein content detected was higher in okra, tom...

Safina Naz1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi2*, Bushra Siddique3 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4

...sculentus (1.34 g/100g), moisture contents in Lycopericon esculentum (93.7%), protein in Spinacia oleracea (2.23g/100g), fats and fiber in Abelmoschus esculentus (0.44g/100g and 3.27g/100g, respectively), ascorbic acid in Spinacia oleracea (84.5mg/100g) and carbohydrate and energy values in Daucus carota (11.25g/100g and 55.80 cal, respectively). While, higher mineral contents were recorded for phosphorous (P) in Spinacia oleracea (85.5mg/100g), sodium (Na) an...

Abdur Rehman1* and Shad Khan Khalil2 

... to study the effects of moisture stress and foliar application of chemicals at different growth stages on canola growth and phenology during 2015-16 and 2016-17. The experiment comprised of four moisture levels (optimum water, 10%, 20% and 30% reduced irrigation water), three chemicals (salicylic acid 0.5mM, potassium nitrate KNO3 1% and methanol 20% v/v basis) applied at three different stages (bud formation, 20% flowering...
Xiaojie Ding, Xiling Sun, Zuien Wang, Qiusheng Zheng, Xiaofei Yu, Wenjin Hao, Kejun Wang, Wenjuan Xu and Zhengping Dong*
...nt stress. The rat fecal moisture content, fecal trait score, and abdominal wall withdrawal reflex (AWR) score were used to determine whether the model was successful. The effects of Wumei Pill on the TLR4/9-NF-kB signaling pathway rats with IBS-D was observed by testing the contents of serum level of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as colonic mucosal tissue TLR4/9 and NF-kB. We got the following r...

Ali Muhammad*, Yasser Durrani, Majid Suhail Hashmi, Ihsan Mabood Qazi, Muhammad Ayub and Saifullah 

...emically (pH, %acidity, %moisture, crude protein) and organoleptically (color, taste, texture and overall acceptability) with an interval of one week for storage period of one month. The treatments were T0 (not treated), T1 (neutralized with NaOH) and T2 (neutralized with NaHCO3). Statistical analysis showed that storage intervals and treatments had a significant (p<0.05) effect on physicochemical and sensory quality of neutralized whey. 

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 *Irum Javed1, Muhammad Asgher2, Sadia Noreen1, Humara Naz Majeed1 and Tanzila Sahar1

SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURE RESIDUE AS SUBSTRATE
...served that 4.5 pH, 60 % moisture content, 5ml/5g inoculum size and 30oC temperature, are the initial requirements for maximum production of citric acid. It was also observed that Yeast extract in 1% concentration was the best nitrogen source. Surfactants like Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulphat (SDS) showed no effect on the citric acid.

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Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Arif1, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi3, Muhammad Munir4 and Imran Khan

...ll the parameters except moisture content that was found to be non-significant in 2013. The comparative assessment of the exotic germplasms investigated in this study displayed better performance over the local check in both the study years. The maximum germination (84.1 % and 85.4 %), number of fruits (25.4 and 23.9), fruit length (52.8 and 51.5 cm), fruit width (16.7 and 17.1 cm), fruit weight (1283.8 and 1330.2 g), yield (48.1 and 50.1 tons ha-1), TSS (7.1 ...

Sahar Shibli1,2*, Farzana Siddique1, Saeeda Raza2, Zaheer Ahsan3 and Irum Raza4 

...20 to 5.93±0.02 % moisture, 2.00±0.11 to 2.17±0.05% ash, 49.80±3.54 to 50.90±0.93% fats, 23.83±1.71 to 26.43±1.15 % proteins, 13.23±2.20 to 19.42±3.83 % carbohydrates and 4.95±0.06 to 8.53± % fiber. Mineral analysis of peanut cultivars showed 12.60±0.38 to 16.61±1.51 mg/100g Fe , 2.34±0.075 to 3.37±0.040 mg/100g Zn, 38.64±3.50 to 48.24±32.58 m...

Masaud Khan1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Tahir Sarwar1 and Muhammad Jamal Khan2 

... (FDR) was used for soil moisture monitoring. Full irrigation was determined on the basis of MAD 30%. Simulation of nitrate leaching showed that Nitrate leaching was more sensitive to irrigation levels than Nitrogen doses. With the increasing level of irrigation nitration, leaching increased significantly compared to the increasing Nitrogen doses and same pattern was observed with the decreasing irrigation levels and decreasing nitrogen doses. When irrigation ...

Ali Bakhsh1*, Mashal Rehman1, Said Salman1 and Rehmat Ullah

... seed cotton yield under moisture stress and NIAB-1048 and Zakaria-1 attained higher sympodial branches, maximum bolls per plant, fiber length, GOT and seed cotton yield per plant under non-stress treatment. 

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Zakiullah1, Muhammad Farid Khan1*, Muhammad Mohibullah3, Muhammad Iqbal2, Irfanullah3, Faheemullah3, Madiha Urooj1 and Uzma Arif1 

... of grains ear-1, grains moisture % at harvest, grain yield and biological yield. Mean square values due to general combining ability were highly significant (P≤0.01) for all the experimental parameters except grain yield and biological yield. Highly significant specific combining ability for direct and reciprocal crosses shows highly significant differences for all the studied parameters. PSEV-3 proved best combiner for days to germination and grains

Muhammad Amin1, Aftab Ahmad Khan2, Abida Perveen1, Zareen Rauf1, Sher Shah Hassan2*, Muhammad Arif Goheer2 and Muhammad Ijaz2 

...ecipitation and CPC soil moisture were also used. In formulating Climatological drought year, the droughts of years 2000 and 2002 were categorized as moderate drought years for the area have Precipitation Anomaly of -37% and -31%, respectively whereas Precipitation Anomaly values of -11.5, -15.6, -10.2 and -16.2 were found in years 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2009, respectively and categorized as slight drought years. The coefficient of determination between NDVI and...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...observed regarding area, moisture, thickness of leaves and fruit length of okra varieties. The leaf area was slightly greater in comparatively resistant varieties. Similarly, fruit was found to be significantly more in case of comparatively resistant varieties as compared to intermediate resistant and comparatively susceptible varieties. It was also observed that fruit and shoot infestation was the maximum on comparatively susceptible cultivars while infestati...
Shahid Yousaf1*, Salman Khurshid1, Saqib Arif1, Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Qurrat ul Ain Akbar1, Najmus Sahar1 and Ghulam Rasul2
...but showed narrow ranged moisture contents (10.8-13.3%). The NIR values were significantly related to the referenced values for test weight, wet gluten content and moisture with the correlation coefficients of 0.96, 0.83 and 0.73, respectively. Three consecutive measurements of test weight, moisture and gluten contents by using NIR and referenced methods shown to have average repeatability...
Naveed Ahmad1,*, P.J.A. Siddiqui1, Amjad Ali1, Khan Mir Khan2, Rafaqat Masroor3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Amin5 and Mohammad Attaullah6
...tion of protein, ash and moisture fed at different protein levels except for lipid content of fish body influenced significantly (P<0.05) by increasing protein in the diet. The second degree polynomial regression estimates that A. arabicus grows best when fed on a diet containing up to 42% protein in floating net cages. 
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Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...o evaluate the effect of moisture percentage and pH on the persistence of velogenic NDV genotype VII in the poultry manure which considers a major threat to the Egyptian poultry industry since 2011 onwards. In the present study, manure of specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks was contaminated with allantoic fluid of 8 log2 NDV and kept at room temperature then daily examination of poultry manure for the survival of NDV on the basis of virus isolation and haemagg...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...ng for the manure pH and moisture % was carried out. Our explanation for the long-time course for NDV persistence due to increasing the moisture %. In this context, the findings of this study revealed that genotype VII viruses of class II NDV are circulating in Egypt. Furthermore, genotype II-based vaccines seem to be not efficient in stopping or controlling NDV infections among Egyptian poultry farms. On the other hand, the...

Muhammad Adnan Islam1,2*, Muhammad Iqbal2, Zia-ul-Haq2,3, Muhammad Mohsin Ali1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1, Shabbir Ahmed Kalwar1, Liaqat Ali Shahid1, Badar Munir Khan Niazi1 and Muzammil Husain1 

...ed field. In this study, moisture content (15.72 %), bulk density (1.41 g/cm3) and penetration resistance (875.21 kPa) were found 1.73, 1.23 and 1.48 times more under zone disc tiller machine as compared with conventional tillage moisture content (9.07%), bulk density (1.14 g/cm3) and penetration resistance (519 kPa). Seedling emergence rate index (11.26 %), number of tillers/m2(372) and grain yield (2984.58 kg/ha) were also...

Gulnaz Saleem1, Aijaz Hussain Soomro1*, Nouman Rashid2 and Mehar un Nisa Narejo3 

...; PM-09 possessed higher moisture (13.89%); though Masoor-93 was higher in protein content (25.16%) than all other varieties. The supplementation resulted in a significant increase in protein, fat, crude fiber and ash contents of the biscuits. The thickness and spread factor of biscuits differ significantly while non-significant effect was observed in the width of the biscuits. Sensory analysis revealed that there were no significant differences (p>0.05) am...
Hashim Ullah1, Abdur Rahman1, Rifat Ullah Khan2, Shakoor Ahmad2 and Ambrina Tariq3, Shabana Naz4,*
...fat, crude protein, ash, moisture and dressing percentage of WaziriandMazaisheep. A total of 36 mature sheep of Waziri and Mazai were selected and processed for dressing percentage and meat quality through proximate analysis. Wazirisheephad lower cholesterol as compared to Mazai. With the increasing BCS, the cholesterol content was significantly increased in both the breeds. The dressing percentage and crude protein were higher in Waziribut the fat content was...

Masooma Munir1,2*, Abdul Ahad3, Asra Gull1, Aqsa Qayyum2, Nouman Rashid Siddique2, Amer Mumtaz2, Naeem Safdar2, Barkat Ali2, Muhammad Nadeem1 and Tahir Mahmood Qureshi

Asad Ali Khaskheli1*, Gulfam Ali Mughal1, Gul Bahar Khaskheli2, Allah Jurio Khaskheli3, Arshad Ali Khaskheli4, Abdul Samad Magsi5, Ghulam Shabir Barham2, Arab Khan Lund5 and Maqbool Ahmed Jamali4 

... study indicated highest moisture content in Trifolium alexandrinum and lowest in Tamarix gallica. Zea mays contained considerably high organic matter. Capparis deciduas followed by Salvadora oleiodes and Ziziphus nummularia possessed significantly high concentration of crude protein. Further the Prosopis juliflora against Zea mays, in Acacia nilotica versus Alhagi maurorum, in Tamarix orientalis versus Trifolium alexandrinum, Tamarix gallica versus Cordia sin...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Khalid Usman2*, Shahid Hameed Khan Khalil3, Abdul Mateen Khattak4, Muhammad Ehsan Elahi1, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik2 and Amir Hamza2
... were kept constant. The moisture contents were reduced to recommended moisture of 23-25% for shelf life stability. Data for fresh date production ranged from 39-59% of the initial value. Minimum (39%) and maximum (59%) fresh date yields were recorded in cv. Gulistan and Shakri, respectively. Similarly, minimum and maximum produce recorded in dry dates were 32 and 50% in Gol Basara and Zahidi, respectively. Maximum and minim...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Imtiaz Sarwar1, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Rehan Khalid1, Muhammad Yahya1 and Khurram Shehzad2
...density, temperature and moisture contents of the soil.
...
Shagufta Naz1, Ayesha Javed1, Ayesha Saleem1, Khadija Murtaza1, Rukhama Haq1, Akbar Hayat2 and Neelma Munir1,*
...aspects like microflora, moisture, fat, ash, fiber, phenolic content, sprouting inhibition, physiological weight loss, pyruvate analysis and sugar contents. Gamma radiation affected these parameters at higher doses but at 0.5 kGy no significant change was observed. 0.5 kGy prouting was inhibited and microflora was reduced at this dose without affecting its nutritional and sensory qualities. So, it was proved to be the best optimized dose was 0.5kGy.
...

Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Imran Khan1, Muhammad Afzal1, Azhar Abbas Khan2, Syed Muhammad Ali Zahid1, Muhammad Saqib1, Asad Abdullah1, Saba Kousar1 and Maryam Riaz1 

...genotype at high and low moisture levels of plants respectively. Similarly, the relative growth and consumption rate of H. armigera was higher on non-transgenic genotype compared to transgenic. Overall the performance of H. armigera feeding was greater on high-watered leaves compared to water stress leaves. The results showed that the performance of H. armigera was superior on non-transgenic compared to transgenic genotypes at high-watered plants. 

...

Saifullah* and Ihsan Mabood Qazi 

...nt while WWF was high in moisture (6.08-8.03%) and ash (0.95-0.98%). It is cleared from the data that FWF of all the selected varieties especially Shahkar-13 could be used in the production of various bakery products especially noodles. 

...

Manzoor1*, Ahmad Khan1, Amir Sohail2, Shahzad Ali1, Fawad Ali Shah3, Junaid Iqbal3, Muhammad Owais Khan4 and Sultan Nawaz4 

...t and Broadcast) in soil moisture conservation for maize crop. The research was carried out using RCBD with split plot arrangement having 4 replications at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during May 2017. Deficit Irrigations were allotted to main plots, while planting methods were allotted to sub plots. Deficit irrigations had significant (P≤0.05) affect on all parameters excluding number of plants at harvest. Full irrigation...
Muhammad Muneeb1, Muhammad Ayub1, Sher Bahadar Khan2,*, Amjad Sohail1, Farkhanda Jabeen1, Mumtaz Ali Khan3, Amjad Khan4, Kashif Prince3, Asghar Khan5 and Irshad Ahmad6
...owed by Hashtnagri. High moisture content was observed in samples taken from Saddar Bazaar (51.70%) followed by Tehkal Region (50.94%) while the high Ash content was found in Charsadda Road (1.81%) samples followed by Hashtnagri (1.76%). The highest fat content was observed in samples taken from Chowk Yaadgar (17.92%) and maximum protein content was found in samples taken from Warsak Road (25.40%) followed by Hashnagri (24.24%). In sensory analysis the maximum...

Muhammad Asim1*, Asghari Bano2, Sikander Khan Tanveer3 and Muhammad Umair Aslam

...cularly rainfall induced moisture availability. Hence, the best match between sowing time and the environment prevailed at that time emerged as an important yield determining factor. Overall, grain yield varied between 2.5-4.9 t/ha in these genotypes, between 2.7-4.8 t/h over years and between 2.0-5.1 t/ha across sowing windows. Therefore, greater variation was observed with change in sowing time followed by genotypes. This management strategy holds for up to ...

Ajmalud Din1*, Munir Ahmad2, Fahad Masoud Watto2, Sheraz Ahmed1, Imtiaz Ali1 and Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah

...es among genotypes under moisture stress and normal environmental conditions. High variations were recorded for cell membrane stability, relative water content and osmotic adjustment which indicated the suitability of these traits as selection criterion for drought tolerance. Significant association was observed between chlorophyll and proline content. Osmotic adjustment was significantly correlated with relative water content and cell membrane stability. Acco...

Stanley Uchenna Onwudike* and Vivian Chizoba Edoziem 

... effect (p = 5%) on soil moisture content, soil pH, organic carbon and exchangeable bases between the bulk soil and the rhizosphere. The highest value of saloid bound P (7.77 mg/kg) was found within the bean root zone while the highest value of phosphorus bound to Al (Al - P) (13.27 mg/kg) was found in okra root zone. Highest value of occluded – phosphorus (46.07 mg/kg), Fe -Al–P (40.62 mg/kg) and Ca-P (6.77 mg/kg) were recorded in groundnut root z...
Asad Ali Khaskheli1*, Gulfam Ali Mughal1, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Gul Bahar Khaskheli3, Allah Jurio Khaskheli2 and Arshad Ali Khaskheli1
...es like major nutrients (moisture, dry matter, total organic matter, inorganic/mineral matter (ash), ether extract, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen free extract and total carbohydrate contents) were included. Comprehensive survey indicated year round availability of 19 different vegetations at study areas whereby dry matter contents in Calligonum polygonoides (93.63%) recorded significantly high, and in Trifolium alexandrinum it was low, whi...

Muhammad Rafiq1, Muhammad Tariq Mahmood2*, Mushtaq Ahmad2, Imtiaz Ali3, Muhammad Saleem1, Irfan Rasool1 and Zeshan Ali

...and marginal lands where moisture stress is a major limiting factor for chickpea production. In order to identify drought resilient chickpea genotypes, a field experiment consisting of 16 elite genotypes was carried out in two environments i.e. under moisture stress and non-stress environment following randomized complete block design at Gram Breeding Research Station, Kallurkot, Punjab, Pakistan during rabi season of 2018-1...

Amjad Ali1, Awais Salman1, Gul Daraz Khan1, Aftab Ahmad Khan2, Sher Shah Hassan2*, Muhammad Arif Goheer2, Mahmood Alam Khan3 and Sajjad Ahmed

...ub-plot factor. The soil moisture contents were determined through the gravimetric method. Results showed that different deficit irrigation levels and sowing dates significantly affected different growth parameters, yield, weight and harvest index of turnip. Maximum number of leaves per plant (19.16), leaf length (19.97 cm), leaf width (10.46 cm), plant height (39.27 cm), turnip length (17.24 cm), turnip diameter (7.84 cm), turnip yield (22.42 tons ha-1), tur...

M. Rufai1† , A. A.Wahab2 , Q. O. Adeshina1 , J. C. Umehokoh1 and O. O.Ologunro1

Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria
...oil texture, vegetation, moisture and pH. A total of 110 soil samples were randomly collected from various cultivated fields in different locations. The soil samples were baited twice using last instar larvae of the Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) for presence of entomopathogenic nematodes. Four EPN isolates were recovered viz., Heterorhabditis indica, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema karii and Steinernema wesieri. Of a total of 110 soil sampl...

Tanveer Sultan1, Anwaar Ahmed1, Aqsa Qayyum2*, Amer Mumtaz2 and Naeem Khalid

...in buckwheat flour while moisture contents decreased significantly (4.63±0.04 to 3.80±0.04). The protein (8.93±0.03) and fat contents (3.01±0.06) were significantly higher in supplemented pasta having 50% buckwheat. However, it negatively influenced the cooking quality parameters (cooking time, loss of solids). The sensory scores emphasized that pasta with 30 % buckwheat supplementation was more appealing for taste, color and textur...

Muhammad Ahsan Naseer1, Mehdi Maqbool1, Saima Rafiq2*, Noosheen Zahid1, Abdul Hamid1 and Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah1

Comparative Analysis of Physical and Biochemical Attributes of Edible Fig (Ficus carica L.) Collected from Three Districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Located at Different Elevations
...al soluble solids, total moisture, vitamin C, total phenolic and antioxidant activity). Results showed that wild figs obtained from diverse localities have different attributes in terms of physical as well biochemical properties. Maximum fruits weight (6.24 g), fruits diameter (24.09 mm), and neck length (9.51 mm) was observed in fruits harvested from Arja location of Bagh District, while the minimum fruit weight (2.48 g), fruit diameter (16.69 mm), and neck l...

Rabab Rafaqat1, Habib Ahmed Rathore1, Tariq Masud2, Imran Hayat1* and Imtiaz Hussain1

Determination of Different Chemical Constituents of Fruit, Leaves and Oil of Olea cuspidata (Wild Olive) Grown at Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
...). For this purpose, the moisture content, crude fibre, crude protein, total oil, ash content and nitrogen free extract of fruit and leaves were studied. Extracts of wild olive fruit and leaves were made in four different solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone and water). Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of fruit and leaves extracts in these solvents were determined. Oil was extracted from wild olive fruit by the process of solvent ...

Syeda Farzana Bibi* and Siraj ud Din

Unraveling the Bioherbicidal Potential, Elemental Analysis and Nutritional Evaluation of Crataeva adansonii Dc Leaf and Bark
...s, fats, fiber, ash, and moisture. The bioherbicidal potential of the proposed plant was evaluated through the Lemna minor model of phytotoxicity. C. adansonii is a source of several essential macro and micronutrients. A nutritional value analysis of this plant offers its use as a food source. Bioherbicidal/phytotoxic activity revealed significant results in the form of dose-dependent inhibition of frond growth. Ethanolic extract of C. adansonii exhibited 30% ...
Muhammad Farooq1*, M. Javed Iqbal2, Rizwan Shukat2, Qayyum Shehzad3, Shabir Ahmed4, Elham Azadfar5, Abdul Saboor6, Ibrar Ahmad7, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi1, Kaleem Kakar8, Shoaib Khan9 and Wang Yunyang1
Development of Onion Powder by using Egg Albumin as a Foaming Agent by Foam-Mat Drying Process
...foods which contain high moisture content. Onion powder was prepared by foam mat drying technique in which onion paste was treated with different concentration of egg albumin (0%, 4%, 8% and 12%) as foaming agent and Carboxyl methylcellulose (0.5%) as foam stabilizer and these were dried in hot air tray drier at different temperatures (55°C, 65°C and 75°C) with 3mm sheet thickness of onion foams. Effect of different concentration of foaming agent a...
Sadaqat Khan1,Saleem Ullah1* and Muhammad Sajid2
...arameters of leaves like moisture, ash, crude fiber, crude protein, crude fat ranged from 92.082 to 92.317, 3.097 to 3.85, 4.9133 to 5.2717, 5.0133 to 5.2867, 1.08 to 1.24, 0.0236 to 1.9567 g/100g and that of fruits with lesser values were also affected significantly (P<0.05). From the present study it was concluded that Se applied in the form of sodium selenite in irrigation and foliar spray considerably affected the physical parameter of tomato hybrid Sal...
Sadaf Javaria1, Anum Marwat1, Muhammad Nadeem2, Mehwish Zerlasht1, Aiman Kareem3, Iqra Rubab1 and Masooma Munir4*
...ifferent fruit ratios on moisture content (MC), pH, total titratable acid content, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C, protein, iron and magnesium were investigated. Results of sensory evaluation showed that all the samples were in an acceptable range. However, Mix fruit leather with 50 % apple puree and 50% peach puree was liked the most by the panelists.
...
Salman Ali1*, Ayaz Ali2, Riaz Ali Rind2, Majid Ali3, Zulfiqar Ali Mastoi2, Shagufta Naz3, Muhammad Shakir3, Rashid Ahmed Qaim Khani1
...esulted average value of moisture 65.03%, titratable acidity 1.78%, pH value 6.26, protein 24.07%, fat 3.76%. Whereas, the fried fish resulted moisture 62.16%, titratable acidity 1.39%, pH value 5.96, protein 21.11%, fat 5.93%. The fish grilled resulted in moisture 60.19%, titratable acidity 1.32%, pH value 5.89, protein 20.28%, and fat 4.13%. According to the sensory evaluation the result...
Muhammad Ilyas Khan*, Ihsan Mabood Qazi and Mohammad Ayub
 
 
...s indicated that colour, moisture, water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI), swelling power (SP) and pasting profile of selected varieties of rice flour were significantly (p < 0.05) different from each other, except ash content. Rice flour had irregular and small to large shape. Amylose content of rice varieties ranged from 9.11% (Watni) to 27.65% (Lavange) and selected as low and high amylose rice varieties. Expectedly, study confirmed t...
Aysha Riaz* and Said Wahab
...ringa leaves powder. The moisture content of the biscuits was in the range of 3.99 to 4.13%, protein content, crude fat, ash content, crude fiber and NFE content of WMB0 (biscuits with 100% whole wheat flour and 0% moringa leaves powder) and WMB10 (biscuits with 90% whole wheat flour and 10% moringa leaves powder) were 7.58 and 8.65, 23.42 and 25.44, 1.28 and 2.09, 1.09 and 3.60, and 62.67 and 56.15% respectively. There was 12.37% crude p...
Muhammad Farooq1*, Allah Rakha2,Jawad Ul Hassan2, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi1, A. Shakoor3, Muhammad Bakhtiar4, Muhammad Noman Khan5,Shoaib Khan5, Ibrar Ahmad6, Shabir Ahmed7 andWang Yunyang1*
 

...ct of mushroom powder on moisture, crude protein crude fat and nitrogen free extract of muffin were non-significant and effect on ash and crude fiber were significant when 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% mushroom powder based muffin were prepared. The effect of mushroom powder supplementations on loaf weight of muffin was significant and resulted in gradual decrease. However, the effect on loaf volume of muffins was non-significant. The effects of mushroom powder on...

Safdar Hussain1, Muhammad Naeem Mushtaq5, Ali Bakhsh3, Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Muhammad Sarwar1, Muhammad Jan4*, Muhammad Abdul Qayyum2 and Arif Husain2

...contents (72.65 %), soil moisture contents (14.40 %). Comparing the genotypic performance Aas-2011 performed well as compared to Faisalabd-2008 and TD-1 wheat genotype.

...

M. Javed Iqbal1, Rizwan Shukat1, Muhammad Farooq2*, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi2, Naila Ilyas3, Rahman Ullah4, A. Shakoor5, Muhammad Bakhtiar6 and Faraz Ahmed7 

...o Family Alliaceae. High moisture content of onion render it to be affected by microbial and enzymatic spoilage. Drying is a very effective way to preserve onion for a long time. Onion powder was prepared by foam mat drying technique in which onion paste was treated with different concentration of soy protein (0%, 4%, 8% and 12%) as foaming agent and Carboxyl methylcellulose (0.5%) as foam stabilizer and these were dried in hot air tray drier at different temp...

Arshad Mehmood Khattak1, Saleem Ullah1*, Farida Anjum2, Hamid U. Shah1 and Sahib Alam1

Syed Muhammad Aun Naqvi1, Sara Tahir1, Tanveer Ahmed2*, Huma Naz3, Amara Gilani4, Atif Liaqat5

...aximum values of percent moisture compared to the W2 and W3. Fish of the W3 weight group showed higher levels of crude protein and lipid percentage compared with W1 and W2. Highest ash (percentage) was measured in the gills of the weight group W3 as compared to W1 and W2. Generally, total carbohydrates are determined by the difference of the entire proximate body composition indices, and in this study, it was found that the liver contains maximum carbohydrates...

Muhammad Yamin1*, Usama Ali Zafar1, Ghulam Usman2, Muhammad Nauman1, Muhammad Rizwan3, Muhammad Nadeem1, Muhammad Azhar Ali1 and Usman Haider1

...ature, humidity and soil moisture sensors. Two of three tunnels were fit with control units of exhaust fans and air heaters and a water pump for controlling the temperature and soil moisture. During the testing and validation of the system, temperatures recorded through DHT-21 sensor and thermometer in tunnel 1, 2 and 3 had strong correlations of 0.9986, 0.998 and 0.9978 respectively. Similarly, strong correlations of 0.9987...

Barış Bayraklı

...e lowest, and in August, moisture was the highest. Among the essential amino acids (EAA) determined during the study, lysine reached the highest value each month followed by leucine and isoleucine, respectively. On the other hand, among the non-essential amino acids (NEAA), aspartic acid and glutamic acid were the highest each month followed by glycine and alanine, respectively. The mean DHA/EPA ratio was calculated as 0.52±0.031. Moreover, the ratio of...

Muhammad Akhtar1, Muhammad Tariq Mahmood2*, Kaiser Latif Cheema1, Mushtaq Ahmad2, Muhammad Jahanzaib Khalid1, Amir Amin1, Javed Anwar Shah1, Zeeshan Qadeer1 and Zeshan Ali3

...ressively depleting soil moisture and predominant cultivation of chickpea under residual soil moisture condition are major causes of drastic decline in chickpea productivity in Pakistan. Systematic breeding efforts are required for evaluation of available genetic material to evolve drought tolerant chickpea cultivars for drought prone regions of the country. For this purpose, a research experiment was conducted in
Arbab Zubair Ahmad1, Farman Ullah1, Hayat Badshah2, Muhammad Shehzad Khan1* and Bashir Ahmad1
...een development time and moisture content and carbohydrate was observed. Wheat proved to be suitable as host with high bio-chemical contents for mass rearing of S. cerealella that provide maximum moths in short duration and their eggs yield more of T. chilonis, thus recommended for production system of T. chilonis.

...

Azra Nadeem1*, Shaukat Hussain2, Saeedullah2, Asma Akbar3, Zahoor Ahmad4, Maryam Tariq5, Robina Karim6 and Muhammad Huzaifa7

...fect of 5 different soil moisture levels (3%, 5%, 8%, 11% and 15%) with or without Trichoderma viride as biocontrol agent in controlling black scurf was investigated under controlled conditions. Data were recorded for disease severity, incidence, tuber weight, number of tubers/plant, fresh root weight and plant height at the time of harvest of the crop. The biocontrol agent (T. viride) showed lowest disease incidence (53.73%) and severity (1.27) at 8%

Nazeer Ahmed Lashari1*, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh2, Aijaz Hussain Soomro2 and ShamsuddinTunio3

...dicates that the maximum moisture content was 20% of (DR-82) in nylon packing at 6 months of storing time; whereas, lowest moisture was observed in BS-385 (10.76%) at fresh level. 1000 grain weight (g) was between 14.90g to 25.00g for aromatic variety Lateefy at fresh level while, in DR-82 25.00g for cotton, gunny and nylon packages after 3 months. The gel consistency (mm) was medium and soft with the gel distance values of ...
Jhan Zeb1*, Saiqa Tufail1, Nausheen Saboohi1, Zafar Samuel2, Asher Azeem3, Yaseen Amir4 and Sehrish Akram5

Tamoor Ali1*, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1, Bilal Saeed Khan1, Abdul Ghaffar2, Danish Riaz3, Muhammad Zia ul Haq1, Shoaib Nawaz1, Aneeb Ali1, Iftikhar ul Hassan1, Ikram Ul Haq4, Muhammad Khuram Shahzad1, Usama Saleem5 and Tamsila Nazir2

...had negative effects.The moisture having negative response with the whitefly and intermediate with the thrips population while with the jassid it exhibited positive correlation. Sucking pests also had an influence on the yield factor.

...

Ho Shi Hui1, Eng-Keng Seow2, Nurul Huda1* 

...olding test, expressible moisture and texture profile analysis were compared. Ultrasound treatment had caused a significant (p<0.05) change in pH, foaming capacity, and the folding test score of egg white gel. However, texture profile analysis showed that the hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness of egg white gel had decreased after ultrasound treatment. Ultrasound-treated duck egg white for 40 minutes showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher foam...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Hina Gohar1, Muhammad Asrar1, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad2, Azhar Rasul1, Majid Hussain3, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1, Nisar Ahmad4 and Aqsa Sharif1
...protein, crude fat, ash, moisture and carbohydrates) were noted in fish group fed on 400mg/kg of polyphenols in diet. Hence supplementation of polyphenols at 400mg/kg was found to be optimum for better hematology, minerals absorption and carcass composition of common carp.

...

Naima Din1, Misbah Ashraf1, Muhammad Rizwan2*, Muhammad Babar Shahzad Afzal4, Hafiz Ghazanfar Abbas2, Farrukh Ilahi2, Amir Hameed5, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub6, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Farooq2,3

...chlorophyll contents and moisture percentage were also evaluated for the tested varieties. Among the tested varieties, OK Advanta-803 was most resistant to the jassid (13.36/leaf), whereas NS-810 was most susceptible to the A. devastans (23.93/leaf). A. devastans population showed a significant and positive correlation (r = 0.8573*) with area of leaf lamina and moisture percentage (r = +0.7192*). As leaf area of NS-810 (184....

Nuzhat Naseem, Sajid Abdullah and Sana Aziz*

...ementation decreased the moisture content and increased the crude ash, protein and fat significantly in proximate composition of whole-body of the fish and hence, improved the meat quality of Labeo rohita fingerlings.

...

Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar1, Saqib Arif1, Shahid Yousaf2*, Salman Khurshid1, Saqib Jabbar2, Neelofar Hamid3 and Uzma Sitara1

...gical i.e., ash content, moisture content, pH, (total titratable acidity) TTA, (Total soluble solids) TSS, antioxidant activity using 2, 2-diphenyl, 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial activity in Roma VF tomato variety was assessed within three different mature levels viz., green, pink and red. Outcomes from recent study pointed out that maturity levels involved to change the quality of tomato. Moisture and ash incre...

A. Samy1*, H.M.A. Hassan1, Fatma T.F. Abd-El Ghany2, Shama H. Morsy2 

...;0.05) while, decreasing moisture and fat levels. Digestibility coefficients of CP, CF, and EE, as well as the nutritive values of TDN, DCP, and DE, were considerably improved (P<0.05), although DM, OM, and NFE digestibility was unaffected in all treatments. Considerably, Addition of curcumin or garlic extract boosted final weight, weight gain, and feed efficiency compared to the control group. Dietary treatments were significantly (P<0.05) raised carcas...

Arab Khan Lund1*, Atta Hussain Shah2, Gul Bahar Khaskheli2, Mool Chand Malhi3, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi4, Abdul Samad Mangsi5 and Asad Ali Khaskheli6

...ivity, refractive index, moisture, fat, protein and lactose content, however, it was non-significant (p>0.05). Results are concluded that the nitrogen fractions markedly affected by different heating and time combinations followed by physical properties while less effect on the chemical components of milk ultimately nutritive value.

...

Jawad Abdullah Butt1*, Yasmin Nergis1, Ahmad Hussain2 and Mughal Sharif1 

... of coal ashes. The mean moisture content found in both Thar coal blocks (44.28-47.76%) respectively high as a similar volatile matter (31.06-32.54%) and low ash (6.71-6.95%). The mean sulfur percentage in both Thar coal (0.79-1.05%) was also found moderate to low. Mean calorific values (5260-6339 Btu/lb) of local coals show their potential as a future fuel. In the coal ash analysis, it can be realized that mostly ash contents are comprised of organic substanc...

Abid Hussain1, Mubbashira Nazir2*, Saira Batool2 and Sidra Majeed1

...y;">Economic analyses of moisture conservation for groundnut and wheat crops through gypsum application, and adoption of micro-catchments for olive orchards and fruit trees in rain-fed Pothwar have been carried out. Socioeconomic characteristics of the adopter farmers have also been studied. The study is based on primary data that was collected from 110 sample farmers in the year 2018. It is found that adopters of the gypsum technology are more educated, havin...

Nishant Shah1*, Rakesh Kumar Yadav1, Anil Gautam1*, Shambhu Shah1 and Mohan Kumar Gupta2

... depends on factors like moisture (%), pH, total nitrogen (%) of litter, and temperature of broiler houses. Carbonized Rice Husk (CRH) is a good poultry bedding material that consists of carbon and SiO2 which interestingly enhance ammonia adsorption. Keeping the above fact, this study was conducted to reduce ammonia reducing immunosuppression that manages susceptibility of E. coli. When the maximum level of ammonia was produced i.e., on day 34, intra-nasal adm...

Farzana Begum* and Gohar Ayub

...ength (15.63cm), highest moisture content (12.57 %) and hard seed (26.85 %) were recorded at mature pod of turning stage. The data on seed quality attributes in relation to storage revealed that the highest seed moisture (13.21 %) and seed viability (91.86 %) was recorded in seeds stored for 0 months, but the mean maximum germination percentage (75.58%) and lowest hard seed (17.46 %) was recorded with seeds stored for 3 mont...
Baila Ahmad1, Muhammad Ammar Khan1*, Zulfiqar Ahmad1, Rana Muhammad Bilal2 and Asghar Ali Kamboh3
...lly, the pH, expressible moisture (EM), water-holding capacity (WHC), instrumental color, drip loss (DL) and cook loss (CL) were measured. Afterward, the effect of processing (25°C, thermal treatment for 15 min, refrigeration for 3 d, and pressure treatment of 196 N for 15 min) was evaluated. The significantly (p<0.05) lowest EM, but highest (p<0.05) WHC of T3 samples depicted raw meat processing quality improvement. Moreover, dietary incorporation o...

Dede Kardaya*, Dewi Wahyuni, Elis Dihansih 

...s) and chemical quality (moisture content, protein, fat, ash, and phosphorus) parameters. Data were subjected to an analysis of variance and a Duncan’s multiple range test. Results revealed that meat cooking loss and fat content were significantly lowered (P<0.05) in ducks treated with treatment rations. No significant differences were found in other physical and chemical quality parameters. It was concluded that supplementation of 2, 4, and 6% AGLM r...

Maria Endo Mahata1*, Hamdan Sukri Lubis1, Takayuki Ohnuma2, Yose Rizal1 

...s. The measurements were moisture content, stack density, stack compaction density, stack angle, and pellet durability. The results showed no interaction (P>0.05) between the natural pellet binders and dosage on moisture content, stack density, stack compaction density, stack angle, and pellet durability of the Miana plant. Both the first factor (natural pellet binders) and the second factor (dosage) affected

Rijumoni Daimari, Silistina Narzari, Jatin Sarmah* 

...viscera was found to be: moisture 50.67-68.47%, fat 0.47-9.85%, ash 0.16-0.92%, protein 6.85-22.36%, carbohydrate 10.18-24.65% and calorie 124.31-198.16 k/cal/100g. Among the samples the maximum protein, carbohydrate and calorie were found in liver. Most numbers of the essential amino acids was found in spleen with lysine contributing the largest amount. Fat content was maximum in large intestine, similarly the saturated fatty acid content too was found highe...

Shakeel Ahmad1*, Humaira Wasila2, Juweria Abid3, Nazir Muhammad4 and Hazrat Usman5 

...ods were used to analyze moisture, ash, carbohydrates, fats and protein contents of milk products. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and flame photometry were used for mineral analysis. Total phenolic compounds were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for evaluating total flavonoids contents. Antioxidant activity was assessed by the DPPH method. The results showed that moisture

Zahin Anjum1*, Mubashra Tarana1, Shaista Ali1, Faryal Yousaf1, Amina Rahat1 and Sumbla Yousaf2

...s (Ca, Na, K, P and Mg), moisture content, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The samples were obtained from five different sites of the University Campus, Peshawar- Pakistan. The Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was employed for determination of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Ca and Mg. Furthermore, a spectrophotometer was also used for the purpose of phosphorus (P). However, the analysis of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) content was done through a flame photometer. It ...

Ishtiaq Ahmad1*, Muhammad Nafees1, Maryam2, Irfan Ashraf3, Ambreen Maqsood4 and Muhammad Saqib5 

...t weight, fruit area and moisture percentage were significantly higher in oven dry method, followed by sundry with minimum reduction in shade dry method. The depletion in Cu and Fe contents was statistically high in oven drying method, followed by shade dry and sun drying, respectively; however, Zn and Mn contents were not significantly affected by any of drying method. Cu contents were significantly higher in black mulberry; however, Fe, Mn and Zn were simila...

Mahmut Islamoglu

...perature, humidity, soil moisture and photoperiod on the migration of Sunn pest from aestivation sites to overwintering sites were investigated in 2020 and 2021. For this purpose; air temperature, soil temperature, humidity, soil moisture and photoperiod values were recorded with the HOBO device in the overwintering sites. According to the findings; The migration of Sunn pest showed positive or negative correlations with air...
Humaira Gul1*, Muhammad Junaid Yousaf1*, Fawad Ali1, Mamoona Rauf1, Farhad Ali2 and Iqthedar Ali3
...whereas in soil analysis moisture, hygroscopic water, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), chlorides, organic matter were significantly (P<0.05) increased for the soily soil in same proportion that is of sandy soil. This reveals that Barley should be grown in sandy soil for its better growth and productivity. The least growth parameters were noted on soil with more clay retaining most of moisture and inhibiting growth due ...

Samantha Shiuan Erl Lee1, Nurul Huda2*, Yetti Marlida3, Eng-Keng Seow4 

... colour, pH, expressible moisture, folding test, gel strength, texture profile analysis, foaming capacity and stability, and emulsification stability were compared. Ultrasound treatment had caused a significant decrease (p<0.05) in pH and expressible moisture, apart from improving the gel strength and folding test score of egg white gels. Improvement of gel strength was substantiated by the significantly higher (p<0.05...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1,*, Aysha Sameen2, Saima Rafique3, Muhammad Shahbaz1,*, Nabeela Gulzar4, Mian Anjum Murtaza5, Umar Farooq1 and Iram Hafiz6

... on the physic-chemical (moisture, fat, protein, ash,) characters. Melt-ability and flow-ability showed inverse relationship with levels of inulin. Melt-ability and flow-ability decreased by increasing level and increasing hardness. Yield calculation showed non-significant effect within levels but significant effect as compared with control. The fat substituting property is based on its ability to stabilize the structure of aqueous phase which creates an impro...

Mutala’liah, S. Indarti † and N. S. Putra

...biotic factors (pH, soil moisture, soil temperature, soil texture and organic matter) were obtained from each of the
three fields. Vertical distribution was assessed using two soil sample depths (30 cm and 50 cm). This research
showed that the highest population abundance of Pratylenchus sp. both from soil and roots was in Candiroto field
with BP 42 variety i.e. 27 nematodes per 100 ml of soil and 60 nematodes per 10 g of ro...

Muhammad Nadeem1*, Aneeta Rehman1, Masooma Munir1*, Hira Fatima2, Faiqa Malik1, Aqsa Iqbal1 and Alaiha Asif3

...stnut indicated that the moisture, crude protein, fat, fiber, ash and NFE contents for treatments ranges from 5.45-7.27%, 4.02-5.25%, 1.77-2.81%, 1.48-2.97%, 1.28-1.93% and 82.69-83.09%, respectively. The microbial analysis of fruit bars showed that mean values of TPC changed gradually from 1.64 to 2.31 log10 CFU / g during 90 days of storage. The mean values for sensory assessment indicated that T1 was preferred over the other treatments in terms of overall a...
Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Iqra Javed1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Shaukat Ali3, Muhammad Khan1, Farah Rauf Shakoori1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1 and Muhammad Abrar Yousaf1
...th 60% initial substrate moisture contents, tap water as enzyme extraction medium with 2 mL volume, 45°C incubation temperature, pH 7, 300 µL inoculum size, 24 h incubation period in agitated condition with substrate particle size of 4mm during one factor at a time optimization. Concentrations of medium components (3.75% tannic acid, 0.75% K2HPO4 and 1.25% yeast extract) were optimized with central composite design of response surface methodology. Ta...

Behari Lal Meghwar1*, Attaullah Khan1, Imran Ali Lakhiar1, Asif Ali Mirani2, Muhammad Siddique Daper1 and Muhammad Waseem Kalroo

...the rate of reducing the moisture over time with T3 method. The T1 and T2 methods are substitutes for the T3 drying method. Therefore, a small-scale natural convection solar tunnel dryer and solar cum gas-based drying methods were developed and tested at PARC-Arid Zone Research Center, Umerkot. This study was conducted in three different intervals during November 2022, and each interval was replicated three times. In addition, the chilies samples were collecte...

Tarique Ahmed Khokhar1*, Atta Hussain Shah1, Muneer Ahmed Jamali1 and Asghar Ali Kamboh2

...oximate composition such moisture, protein, fat, ash and glycogen decreased with increasing storage period of chilled, frozen and thawed buffen, chevon and chicken meat samples. Nutritive values of chilled, frozen and thawed buffen sample also decreased with increasing storage period.

...
Mansoor Ayoob1, Atta Hussain Shah1, Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani2, Muhammad Faisal Ayoob2,3*, Deepesh Kumar Bhuptani1,5 and Abdul Sattar Baloch4
...amples were analyzed for moisture, fat, protein, glycogen, peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, total viable count and total coliform count after marination with 0, 10, 20, 30 and 100% concentrations of honey and after 1, 4, 8 and 12 days of storage (4 ̊C). The moisture, fat and protein contents were moderately decreased on the 4, 8 and 12th days of storage in all the groups. The glycogen content showed a significant (P < 0.05...
Gilyan V. Fedotova1,2, Marina I. Slozhenkina1, Ivan F. Gorlov1,  Aizhan A. Kaidulina1, Alexander A. Mosolov1, Daria A. Mosolova1, Mohammadreza Poorghasemi3 and Alireza Seidavi3*
...teers in all groups. The moisture retention capacity ranged from 63.75 to 64.12% due to intramuscular fat in the meat. The pH value of the beef samples in all studied groups was at the optimal level.

...

Muhammad Kefayatullah* and Said Wahab

...gar, non-reducing sugar, moisture content, percent weight loss, decay index, chilling injury, total phenols, sugar acid ratio and organoleptic evaluation. An increase was observed in TSS (11.05 to 13.00°Brix), pH (3.71 to 4.25), reducing sugar (1.43 to 2.76), decay index (0.0 to 35.13), weight loss (0.0 to 5.85), sugar acid ratio (14.88 to 20.96), chilling injury (0.0 to 19.41) and a decrease in percent acidity (0.76 to 0.57), ascorbic acid (9.67 to 6.13 m...

Munasik*, Titin Widiyastuti, Caribu Hadi Prayitno

...ient contents, including moisture, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, NFE, calcium and phosphor, and anti-nutritional phytic acid. The results showed that the fermentation process using red oncom mushrooms enriched with Na-glutamate improved the nutritional level of the cassava-tofu dreg mixture. Although the NFE content decreased, the crude fiber content increased, and the amounts of calcium, phosphorus, and protein significantly increased (P < 0.05). ...

Khalil1*, Dwi Ananta1, Andri Bachtiar2, Hermon3

...the palatable component, moisture, nutrient content, and nutritional value of rice straw supplemented with 1% calcite-based mineral mixture, 0.6% molasses, and 0.05% urea. The supplemented straws were stored for 60 days in three bulk treatments: loose stacking, open-tied rolling, and airtight wrapping. The changes in physical appearances, botanical fraction, proximate, and fiber fraction content were determined. The nutritive values of stored rice straws were ...

Indri Juliyarsi1*, Sri Melia1, Rizki Dwi Setiawan1, Deni Novia1, Lailatul Anshor2, Tomi Candra2 

...dy aimed to evaluate the moisture content, physical properties of color, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties of edible films made from whey with the addition of antioxidants from Rosella calyx extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L). The edible film was prepared with the addition of four different levels of rosella extracts (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6%). The addition of rosella calyx extract led to a significant difference (P<0.05) in color (redness), antioxidan...

Ayesha Anwar, Sadia Aslam and Nauman Khalid*

... emulsion showed highest moisture and ash content while patties with 20% beef showed highest fat and protein content. There was a significant difference between the pH values of cooked and uncooked patties from different treatments. Increased lipid oxidation content was observed in cooked and uncooked patties containing different concentrations of emulsions, together with non-significant difference in values of water holding capacity and cooking yield among di...

Afifatul H.A. Adilah1, Junun Sartohadi2* and Suci Handayani1

...acro pores, initial soil moisture, and organic matter. Coconut plants are considered better for the purpose of vegetative soil and water conservation than Mahogany. However, Mahogany must be arranged at the upper plot and Coconut at the lower plot to enhance runoff reduction. Coconut can reduce the volume of surface runoff significantly so that the erosion rate becomes smaller. Coconut roots function to stabilize the physical properties of soil which can ensur...
Yongming Zhang1,2, Yuyu Wang2*, Jing Jia2, Sihe Zhang2, Xiaohua Guo3, Aihua Sun3, Hao Dong3, Peiqiang He4 and Xiefa Song1*
...nificantly higher, while moisture content was significantly lower than that of the wild fish (P<0.05). The contents of all essential amino acids (EAA), half essential amino acids (HEAA) and Tyr, Asp, Glu were significantly higher in farmed Conger myriaster than that in wild fish (P<0.05). The ratios of the WEAA/WTAA (39.92% vs 39.77%) and WEAA/WNEAA (84.29% vs 82.37%) were similar in farmed and wild Conger myriaster (P>0.05). n-3 polyunsaturated fatty...

Sehrish Ishtiaq1, Mahroze Fatima1*, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2, Noor Khan3, Muhammad Bilal4, Maryam2 and Sobia Nisa1

...upplementation. However, moisture, fat and ash contents remained unaffected (p > 0.05). Dietary Ca and P supplementation improved (p < 0.05) the protein and fat digestibility in silver carp. Ca and P contents showed significant increase (p < 0.05) with increasing Ca and P levels in the whole body, bones and scales, achieving the highest (p < 0.05) values at 2% Ca supplemented with 2% P. Whereas, Mg and Zn contents decreased (p < 0.05) with incre...

Afsheen Khattak1, Shahida Naveed1*, Naila Khalid1, Inayat Ullah Khan2 and Tamana Bakht

...(g), dry weight (g), and moisture content (%) of wheat and maize seedling. Result revealed that V. encelioides extracts significantly affected all the growth variables of wheat and maize seeds. Results revealed that V. encelioides has prominent allelopathic potential against the tested species.

...

Ghani Khan1, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Abdul Kabir2, Abdullah Iqbal3*,Naik Muhammad Marri 4, Syed Ahmad khan5, Muhammad Roidar Khan6 , Anees ur Rehman1, Muhammad Zakir Khan7 

...lids, fats, lactose, and moisture content. The results showed that oxytocin treatment significantly decreased pH levels in milk from the first lactation, while specific gravity did not differ significantly between the control and oxytocin-treated groups. Total solids, ash, and protein concentration were significantly higher in the oxytocin group, while lactose concentration significantly increased in all lactations of the oxytocin group. Higher milk production...

Zain Ali1, Amjed Ali1, Bilal Ahmad Khan1*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem1, Muhammad Asif1, Adnan Ashraf1, Muhammad Ehsan Safdar1, Iram Inayat2, Aneela Nijabat3 and Rameez Hussain3,4

...d for forage with a high moisture content preserved by fermentation. The main objectives of making silage are to preserve forage for use in those seasons when fresh forage is not available, to preserve forage when there is a surplus of it during the growing season, and to preserve forage that cannot be grazed. The experiment was carried out at research area, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha to evaluate the combined effect ...

Amna Ali Mohammed Makoof Zabanoot, Al Wafaa Ahmed Suhail Qatan, Amal Salim Mahad Hubais, Khadijah Hamid Musallam Bait Said and Selvaraju Sivamani*

...uctivity, particle size, moisture. In addition, the collected soil samples were mixed with various proportions of rejected lime (10 to 50% of rejected lime in soil-rejected lime mixture with fixed 5 g of soil) and tested for pH, electrical conductivity, and cation exchange capacity. An optimal combination of soil and rejected lime from each mountain was selected to grow the green gram plant for 28 days. The western mountainous range of Dhofar Governorate showe...

Rizki Dwi Setiawan1, Zurmiati2, Wizna2, Ridho Kurniawan Rusli2, Ade Trisna3, Surya Aulia4 

...ffect (P>0.05) on the moisture, ash, crude protein, and crude fat content of the meat. Administration of probiotics (Bacillus subtilis FNCC 0059) up to 53 × 1012 CFU/mL affected the lightness and water-holding capacity of bayang duck meat.  

...

Skeikh Mustafizur Rahman1*, Mst. Shirin Sharmin Khan1, Yousef Ahmed Alkhamis2,3, Roshmon Thomas Mathew2, Md. Moshiur Rahman1, Mohammed Monirul Islam4, Md. Asadujjaman5 and Md. Golam Sarower1

...ts (e.g. protein, lipid, moisture and ash) of eleven non-commercial marine fish species namely Johnius argentatus, Harpodon nehereus, Cynoglossus lingua, Johnius elongatus, Sillaginopsis panijus, Pomadasys hasta, Setipinna phasa, Megalaspis cordyla, Rita rita, Gonialosa manmina and Scatophagus argus obtained from the Bay of Bengal. The samples were collected from raw fish (as a whole), different body parts (head, middle and tail) and processed fish (boiled and...

Muhammad Tahir Latif1*, Muzzammil Hussain1, Ali Zohaib2 and Ishtiaq Hassan3

...s, SS has conserved soil moisture, increased soil organic matter, better soil tilth and enhanced fertilizer uptake efficiency which ultimately increased the yield over the other comparative wheat sowing techniques.

...

Junita Mayasari, Vira Oktavia, Indri Juliyarsi, Ade Sukma, Sri Melia*

 

...iber content of 0.18%, a moisture content of 84.33%, a protein content of 2.77%, and a total viscosity of 6.114 cP. Additionally, the fermented goat milk with Levilactobacillus brevis had a lactic acid bacteria count of 19.00 x 109 CFU/ml, and it was well-liked by the panelists of sensory evaluation. Adding flour to fermented milk still contains lactic acid bacteria that qualify for probiotics, so it can be recommended as a functional food.
 <...

Shirina Akter Toma1, Shah Ahmed Belal2, Md Abdul Baset3, Md Nazim Uddin3*

... broilers by having more moisture and ash contents (except wing meat of broiler), better pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force value, and less intramuscular fat. Results revealed that broilers had the highest level of potassium except drumstick while spent hens had the highest concentration of microelements. Broiler’s thigh and breast meat had greater amino acid composition but wing and drumstick meat of spent hen had higher concentration of amin...

Shanti Fitriani*, Usman Pato, Yusmarini Yusuf, Emma Riftyan, Evy Rossi

...n significantly affected moisture, ash, and protein contents but did not significantly influence the descriptive test.   The best treatment in this study was B5 (the addition of bacteriocin 0.6%), which can maintain the quality of fishballs for up to 12 days at cold temperatures with a moisture content of 73.10%, ash 1.29%, protein 8.35%, and a descriptive test had a surface less smooth, slightly hollow and less br...

MADIHA AFTAB1, ARIFA TAHIR*1, TAYYABA ASIM1 & IRFANA MARYAM2

...ture, incubation period, moisture content and inducer were studied. Medium components were further optimized by Plackett-Burman and central composite designs. Results showed that maximum enzyme activity (297±0.1 U/ml/min) was obtained by using AFM02 medium containing g/L: sawdust, 5.0; glucose, 5.0; peptone, 6.0; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.25; KCl, 0.5; KH2PO4, 0.025. Optimized conditions for maximum enzyme yield were inoculum size 2.5%, Temperature 25˚C, pH 4.5, i...

Deni Novia*, Indri Juliyarsi, Rizki Dwi Setiawan, Clara Mustika, Cindi Melani

... activity, energy value, moisture, protein, fat, ash content, solubility, color (L*, a*, b*), and sensory evaluation of hedonic preferences and qualities. The results revealed that different drying times showed significant differences (P<0.05) in antioxidant activity, energy value, protein, fat, ash, moisture content, color (L*, a*, b*), and sensory properties, except for color attributes in the hedonic preference test. T...

Ndubuisi Chinedu Adikuru1*, Paul Inyang2, Abraham Agwu Ngwuta1, Chinyere Prisca Anyanwu1 and Rosemond Adaohuru Alagba1

...xt-align: justify;">Soil moisture deficit in the rainforest agroecology of Nigeria emanates from altered rainfall pattern caused by climate variability and change. Selected maize (Zea mays) varieties developed for drought tolerance were evaluated over two years to identify those which could be included in the strategy for adapting to climate variability and change in the rainforest agroecology of Nigeria. The treatments were ten (10) maize varieties (eight dro...
Luqman1, Zahid Hussain1, Mohammad Ilyas2, Azmat Ali Awan3, Javed Rahman 2,
Mazhar Ali2 and Tamana Bakht4
...ning the soil fertility, moisture conservation, and
environmental safety.
...

Shabnam Javed1, Amna Shoaib2 and Zaid Mehmood1

...bohydrate, ash, protein, moisture
content and fat, along with carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur were analyzed in whole
plant of S. tomentosa. The results revealed the occurrence of considerable proportion of
carbohydrates (52%) and protein (23.80%). Moisture, fat and ash contents were found in
small amount i.e. 6.25%, 2.02% and 0.20%, respectively. Elemental analysis displ...
Wagner Antonio Gorozabel Muñoz1*, Mayra Jossenka Loor Solórzano1, Josselyn Gema Palacio Intriago1, Virginia Vanessa Andrade Andrade1 and Carlos Alfredo Cedeño-Palacios1,2 
 
..., ash NTE INEN-ISO 2171, moisture NTE INEN-ISO 712, protein NTE INEN-ISO 20483, fiber NTE INEN 542, carbohydrates; antioxidant capacity by DPPH and carotenoids by HPLC. The results showed that the flour extracted from macer squash reached better averages in terms of fat 8.35 %; ash content of13.45 %; moisture 24.39 % and protein 17.70 %; the flour from vermilion squash reached better results in terms of FDN 19.76 % and FDA 8...

Mansoor Ali Khan*, Khalid Imran, Zahid Rauf, Tanvir Hussain, Muhammad Umair Khan and Sajid Ali

...m guajava) revealed that moisture contents (80.16%), protein (2.52%), fibers (2.22%), phosphorus (1.47%), iron (80.20PPm), Vit-C (1.36%), total phenol contents (180.00mg/100g), calcium (11.00mg/100g), magnesium (16.50mg/100g), manganese (0.12mg/100g) and potassium (373.20mg/100g) were maximum in the famous Kohat variety of guava. Alkaloids (0.60%), pectin (0.10%) lipids (2%), and zinc (0.34mg/100g) were maximum in Lahore (Punjab) variety, while ash, acidity ca...

Nageen Iqbal1,2*, Abdul Mateen2, Laiba Shafique1,*, Huma Naz3, Saif ur Rehman4, Nouman Nazir2 and Qingyou Liu4

...ces in carbohydrates and moisture content of fish was observed. Bone meal could replace fish meal as an acceptable protein source to promote growth of L. rohita without any negative effects on growth and body composition.

...
Sara Hidayat,Adnan Shakeel,Mushtaq Ahmad,Muhammad Kashif,Haroon Khan,Muhammad Amin,Ijaz Ahmad,Bakhtiar Gul

Zaigham Abbas1*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Muhammad Anjum Aqeel1, Talha Nazir2

...ion). Highest and lowest moisture contents were recorded for Thal-2006 (16.32%) and Punjab-2009 (14.25%), respectively. Similarly, C. chinensis infestation caused highest and lowest grain germination reduction values for Thal-2006 (23.67%) and Punjab-2009 (10.32%), respectively recorded at 120-day post-treatment. Results of qualitative losses revealed that protein and ash contents reduced maximally up to 12.46 and 1.11% in CM-2008 variety, respectively. While ...
Muhammad Ilyas1 *, Sanam Zarif Satti2 , Bashir Ullah3 and Salim Saif Ullah4
...soil organic matter (%), moisture content (%), and bulk density, were analysed. The statistical analysis was done through STATISTIX 8.1 software by using a Two-sample T-Test, and means were compared at a 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.). The results of the analysis indicated that the soil organic matter and moisture content were found higher in the Mansehra district, with respective values of 4.28% and 18.38%, compared to dist...
Muhammad Umar Atique1, Sanam Zarif Satti1, Muhammad Ilyas1*
...ity parameters including moisture content, ash, protein, fat/oil, fiber, and carbohydrate content were determined. The results of the study revealed that Bauhinia variegata has a maximum percentage (12.56%) of protein content, followed by Acacia nilotica (10.28%) and Ceratonia siliqua (6.54%). The maximum carbohydrate percentage was found in Acacia nilotica (39.41%) followed by Bauhinia variegata (33.8%), while the minimum concentration (27.48%) was found in C...
Syed Said Badshah Bukhari, Ghulam Ali Bajwa and Miskeen Ali
... lowest PCV was 4.01% in moisture content. The PCV was slightly greater than GCV in all the traits. The heritability (h2), in broader sense, was ranged between 0.50% and 1.0%. Seven agronomic traits have h2 >0.80%. The highest genetic advance (GA) was in TSL (75.95%) and the lowest in inter-nodal distance (0.78%). Cluster analysis showed different levels of linkage among accessions. There were two main clusters and each clus...
Ashar Farooq, Abdul Khaliq Chaudhry and Ghulam Muhammad
...es to meet their most of moisture and nutrient requirement. Plant density was significantly affected on northern, eastern and western aspects up to 7 m distance from the base of tree rows while it was non-significantly affected on southern aspect. Crop height was significantly affected up to 7.0 m distance from the base of trees on northern and southern aspects while significant effect on eastern and western aspects was observed up to 11m distance. Boll format...
Tahir Laeeq1, Tariq Mahmood2 Mohammad Amin3 and Khurshid Alam4
...iltration capacity, soil moisture contents and soil bulk density were compared on varying slope of Northern Aspect in sub-tropical chirpine forest at Tret, Murree Hills. Slope was divided into three treatments i.e. gentle slope (0-30%), medium slope (30-60%), and steep slope (>60 %). A transect line of 100m length was laid along each treatment and replicated 5 times. On each transect line the infiltration rate (cm/hr) was determined with the help of double rin...
N. R. Wani1, A. H. Mughal2 and M. A. Khan3
... available potassium and moisture content than barren land.

Key words: Afforestation, Nutrient status, Manasbal lake, Soil

...
Amjad Ali Ch., Tariq Mahmood, Shahzad Fazal and Nowsherwan Zarif
... to ensure adequate soil moisture. Four clipping stages i.e. CS1, CS2, CS3 and CS4 (clipped after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months, respectively) were studied. Response variables were dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL).With increasing clipping stage, concentration of DM, OM, NDF, ADF and ADL increased in all plant parts whereas CP contents declined with increas...
Shad K. Khalil, John G. Mexal, Abdur Rehman, A. Z. Khan and Iftikhar Hussain Khalil
...refrigerated having 100% moisture content (MC) or reducing MC to 85% and then refrigerated for the above duration. Seeds were sown in the greenhouse in Ray-Leach tubes at Fabian Garcia Center, New Mexico State University, USA. Seed soaked in distilled water for more than 4 days failed to germinate. Seed refrigerated after 1 day soaking had increased total emergence, reduced days to 50% emergence (T50). However, none of the treatments produced significantly hea...
Ajiboye, A. A.1, Ebofin, A. O.1, M. O. Atayese,2, M. O. Adedire3, D. A. Agboola1 and M. Kadiri1
... the seeds including the moisture content, dry matter, fibre content, crude protein content, crude fibre content, ash content and carbohydrate content were estimated. The seeds of P. Africana and D. guineensis contain moisture content (%) of 8.64 and 12.62, dry matter content (%) of 9.36 and 87.38; Iron (%) 4.57 and 8.85; crude protein (%) 78.00 and 21.61; crude fibre (%) of 2.43 and 2.33; Ash content (%) 2.1...
Sardar M. Rafique and Ghulam Ali Bajwa
... positive effect of high moisture and protein contents Based on these findings it is recommended that silkworm (B. mori) should be reared on low cut mulberry leaves for better growth and silk production.

Keywords: Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Mulberry, Morus alba, Cultivation forms, Growth, Cocoon character, Strains. ...

Mohammad Ashraf and Shams-ur-Rehman
... hardy enough to minimum moisture and therefore, are very suitable for the hot deserts of this country. Ailanthus altissima is native while Prosopis chilensis has been recently introduced by PFI from Chile. The species was found better than native Prosopis i.e. Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis cineraria....
Hanif Gul and Mirza Hakim Khan
... on the weak trees under moisture stress growing on warmer aspects and ridges with stony soil The stressed trees had very little sap which made them prone to the attack of above beetles The grubs of these beetles constructed concealed and irregular gallaries in the twigs and branches, causing damage to conducting tissue by complete strangulation. Since the insect damage was mainly due to stress caused by drought and was also below the economic limit, therefore...
Siraj-ud-Din and Abdul Waheed Baloch
...our trenches and earthen moistures are more economical and are able to keep the period happy and vigorous for a longer period of time. Biological treatment to sand dune stabilization is the only permanent and everlasting solution to this problem.
...
Ghulam Akbar, Muhammad Arshad and Taj Naseeb Khan
...nized with suitable soil moisture can prove more effective in terms of DMY in desert areas like Cholistan....
Mohammad Hafeez and Muhammad Rafique
... to retain the available moisture for longer time and make it available to plants in their tender age. An experiment was laid out at Maujghar in Cholistan to study the effectiveness of such a chemical 'alkasorb' for its water retaining capacity and its ultimate effect on the survival and growth of tree species....
M. Rafique Sardar
...frequencies. Enough soil moisture during Spring and winter seasons had no positive effect on forage production, however, availability of sufficient soil moisture in the fall season had appreciable effect on forage production. The study based on the information has suggested cut and carry program for seeded Cenchrus ciliaris under silvopastoral system or deferred rotation grazing plan with grazing in late fall to wint...
Hanif Gul and M. Ismail Chaudhry
...y of plants by reducing moisture loss through transpiration thereby decreasing plant mortality. Further, almost all dying and dead plants were infested by termites at Kharian while only 30% of dead plants were infested at D. I. Khan showing that termites are not the cause of mortality of plants....
Bashir Hussain Shah, Altaf Hussain and Raja M. Omer
...Bulk density, porosity, moisture holding capacity, and texture of soil samples were also determined in the laboratory. The results showed that the infiltration capacity was highest in normal soil (0.17cm/hr). The infiltration capacity of saline-sodic soil under different vegetation e.g. tree plantations, grass cover and bare soil differed significantly although other physical characteristics were not significantly different....
Mohammad Rafique Sardar
...aria (Jand) on soil moisture, soil loss, herbage production and ground vegetation cover. Twelve sample trees of almost uniform size were selected in Rakh Dagar Kotli, Thal. The lopping treatments were assigned randomly to the sample trees. The study showed that jand trees play an important role in protecting the soil and ground vegetation from harmful effects of prevailing harsh climatic condition in the Thal desert. Accordingly, more soil
Muhammad Hanif and Bashir Hussain Shah
... bulk density, porosity, moisture holding capacity and texture of soil were observed under forests, agriculture and range vegetation at five sites in scrub, chirpine, kail, fir-spruce and dry temperate zones. Analysis of soil samples showed that soil under forest had higher permeability, porosity and water holding capacity as compared to soil under agriculture and pasture while the bulk density of soil under forest was lower than that of soil under agr...
S. M. Chughtai, Jehandar Shah, Syed Zahir Shah and Sardar Hussain Shah
...upon the availability of moisture and the coarser fraction of soil. In moderately wet new alluvial lands, Saccharum spontaneum was the leading dominant; on relatively drier sites, Astragalus graveolens took the lead over; and in more wet habitats, Salvia-Polypogon community dominated the scene. The stable land was dominated by Cynodon-Imperata community representing a relatively a advanced stage of succession....
Charles D. Bonham, Javed Ahmed and Larry L. Larson
...utes that influence soil moisture. The under story species studied exhibited a relative independence to over story composition and dominance....
Muhammad Shafiq and M. I. Nizami
...factors i.e. shortage of moisture and plant nutrients, in these gullied lands are challenging for a desirable land management practices. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the potential capabilities of the gullied land for establishment of tree plantations and also to test the adoptability/ suitability of some tree species. Four tree species (Leucaena leucocephala, Euclayptus camaldulensis, Morus alba and Ailanthus altissima) wer...
M. Kamaluddin and M. K. Bhuiyan
...nches was 139,1 t/ha 12% moisture content. The results show a good prospect in raising fuel wood plantation of the province in rural waste and marginal land on a rotation of 5 years....
Ioryisa Verinumbe
...mpact strength, density, moisture content, and glue bond quality were determined as specified in B.S. 4512 (1969) and B.S.1445 (1972). modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), impact strength, density, moisture content and glue bond quality of samples from each of 5 boards were determined. The mean value for MOR was 47.38 N/mm2 and 31.76 N/mm2 (perpendicular and parallel to grain of face v...
S. Rehman
...stand high rate of soil moisture stress and is suited to arid conditions prevailing in Mastung Valley. ...
K.M. Siddiqui
... different age groups in moisture content, bark percent, latewood percent, wood specific gravity, fibre lengthy and diameter, extractives contents. Trees of 36 - 45 year age were found to have most suitable wood quality for pulping purpose as compared to those of lower and higher age groups. ...
Pazir Gul and Fazli Wahid Khan
... protein, Cellulose, oil moisture and ash. The results obtained were compared with those of seeds of and exotic species of Quercus incana. The result compared well and justified the exploitation of the indigenous Quercus as a poultry and live-stock feed on a cottage Industry level. It was also concluded that because of their high carbohydrate content they can be used for the preparation of alcohol by fermentation....
G. M. Khattak Dr. and Mahmood Iqbal Sheikh
..., water infiltration and moisture holding capacity, and by topography and drainage. About one third of the area comprises bare rock. Over the rest the soil is shallow, light grey brown, gravelly clay loam with a surface covering of gravel. It is generally underlain by weathered limestone fragments followed by bed rock. The soils are highly calcareous, non-saline and moderately alkaline due to the presence of carbonates. Their organic matter content is negligib...
M. I. R. Khan
...A considerable amount of moisture condenses on the ground and vegetation in the form of dew. The atmospheric humidity is very high especially in the coastal belt throughout the year on account of the close proximity of the Gulf. From May to October temperatures range between 35°C to over 50°C in the middle of the day and they vary between 20°C to 35°C at mid-day during winter months. The lowest minimum temperatures may go down well below 0°C ...
S. Rehman
...re superior to one. Soil moisture in the 0-6 inch layer in plots protected by the belts was consistently higher than in the unprotected plots. ...
M. A. Quraishi, A. Khalique, Shahida Perveen and Perveen Akhtar
...aporation; and low soil moisture. Under such conditions the natural regeneration of this species is scanty and efforts are being made to plant it.
The aim of the present investigation was to gain information about the water balance factors of this species under natural conditions....

Muddassir Ali, Fraz Ahmad Khan*, Mohsin Ali Raza, Muhammad Shahid Munir and Muhammad Usman Saleem

...t p < 0.05. The grain moisture content during harvesting was 21% which was within the recommended range. The effect of harvesting methods on grain losses and head rice yield was highly significant at p < 0.01. Higher grain losses (10.73%) and lower head rice yield (15.40%) were found in the Whole-stalk harvester. Lower grain losses (4.78% and 2.96%) and greater head rice yields (31.73% and 29.73%) were obtained using Head-feed harvesters and manual harve...

Rhuan Chaves1, Diego Leal2, Ygor de Paula³, Andreia Vilas Boas4, Ana Toledo4, Sígfrid López-Ferrer5, Vinicius Cantarelli3, Cesar Garbossa2* 

... high capacity to absorb moisture, oxidative loss of vitamins in feed and its metabolism generates a compound that can taint animal-origin products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding diets containing natural choline (Kolin plus™ FC) as a replacement of choline chloride on performance and blood variables of weaned piglets. A total of 360 piglets with an average initial body weight of 6.33 ± 0.20 kg were utilized in a 41-d...

Ihteram Ullah1*, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil2, Said Salman1, Nasir Mehmood3, Abdul Majid4, Syed Noor Muhammad Shah5 and Zahoor Ahmed6

...enotypes under differing moisture regimes, a study was conducted at Agricultural University, Peshawar, using 24 advanced wheat lines alongside four check cultivars grown in irrigated (normal) and rainfed (stress) conditions. All measured traits, except grain weight per seed, showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) amid environments. There was also substantial genetic variation among the wheat lines for all traits with significant genotype × environm...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

June

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol.40, Iss. 2, Pages 263-679

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