Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2


...uetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 sites distributed across the country. Results indicated that the two most abundant Culicoides species were Culicoides imicola (94.2-95.85%) and Culicoides newsteidi (2.21-2.72%). The rate of prevalence of these species was bi-phasic and higher from April to June, and October to November 2009. Inter...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth


...l specimens promises the identification of novel, yet unknown, infectious diseases and etiologies.


Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

...s calculated for problem identification. It was found that machinery was provided to almost half of the respondents. Similarly seed was the most provided input followed by fertilizers. Top most source of agriculture information was input dealers followed by Model Farm Services Center. The top learned skills by respondents in MFSC were the agronomic practices whereas there was big gap in horticultural practices. Major constraints identified were less machinery ...

Mohammed M. Islam1, 3 *, Damian F. J. Purcell2 and George Kannourakis1,3

...tify;">Efficient identification of viruses is paramount to not only define the cause of uncharacterized infections but also to estimate the dynamics of viral population in the infected hosts. Several recent methodologies and chemistries have been proposed for viral diagnostics with variable outcomes and successes. In this review, we discuss a novel approach to identify the least transcripts of viral genomes using suppression subtractive hybridization t...

 Gul Naz and Mohammad Akmal The suitable variety identification for agro-climate and its optimum N-fertilizer demand with application are need of the day to overcome on N-leaching from the soil and to ensure future food security. Present study was, therefore, conducted in two seasons (2011-12 and 2012-13) at the Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan. Treatments were laid-out in a randomized complete block design; split plot arrangements using four r...

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

Paul I. Ankeli, Mashood A. Raji, Haruna M. Kazeem, Moses O. Odugbo, Nendir J. Umaru, Idowu O. Fagbamila, Livinus T. Ikpa, Obinna O. Nwankiti, Issa A. Muraina, Pam D. Luka and Nicholas D. Nwankpa

... isolation and molecular identification of Mmm from the ear canal of cattle in Nigeria. It is recommended that samples from the ear canal be considered when Mmm isolation is intended so as to improve the chance of recovery. 


Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

...variety of fish nets and identifications of these fishes were made by using standard taxanomic keys on the basis of morphometric characters. Seventy species belonging to 43 genera and 17 families were recorded from the study area of Indus River. Thirty two species were commercially important. Alpha Diversity Indices study showed that fish diversity of the River was quite rich (species richness, 70) and diverse, (Shannon’s index=3.66), (Simpson-D=0.96), E...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

... HH. This study aimed at identification of mutations in GPR54 and GNRHR genes and their correlation with HH in Pakistani boys. Thirty one boys with delayed puberty and thirty one normal age matched controls were examined. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR using specific primers for GPR54 and GNRHR splice site exons. Mutations were analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and/or sequencing. No mutation was identified in GPR54 ge...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

Ali Raza Awan*, Sehrish Firyal, Muhammad Tayyab, Lala Rukh, M. Zia ul Haq, Shagufta Saeed and Muhammad Wasim

Süleyman Kök1*, Sertaç Atalay1, Hasan Semih Eken2 and Mustafa Savaşçi3

...n genotyping and genetic identification is of essential significance for preserving genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to reveal the genotype profile of indigenous types for TGC breed. In order to characterize TGC population, two polymorphic loci in cattle Calpain gene (CAPN1) and one polymorphic locus in Calpastatin gene CAST were studied. In order to sort the allele variants (G/C), PCR products, the ones in CAST with RsaI enzyme, was cut using RFLP...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...has been reported in the identification of viral factors involved in the host immunosuppression, although future studies employing in vivo infection models are needed to clearly understand the mechanisms developed by these viruses, in particular PPRV, to interact with the host immune system. A better comprehension of this behaviour could lead the global strategy for the control and eradicaton of PPR, initiated by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United...

John G. Bruno

... if coupled with genetic identification techniques such as PCR or gene probe hybridization.


Muhammad Saeed* and Iftikhar Hussain Khalil

...tive of the research was identification and proper selection of best performing wheat parental genotypes and best F1 crosses, based on GCA and SCA estimates. Significant differences were observed among the wheat genotypes for all the studied traits. The estimates of σ2gca and σ2sca and its ratio (σ2gca/σ2sca) indicated that non-additive genetic expression were pre-dominant for most of traits studied. Line BRF3 and testers ZM04 were good...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...t-align: justify;">Early identification of yeast to the genus and species level is necessary for effective antifungal therapy, and can also facilitate control of infections. A total of 50 isolates were isolated from 60 swab samples collected from two poultry processing plants represented broiler carcasses swabs and worker (hand swabs and nail scrapings). Phenotype-based methods for identifying yeast especially Candida species are often difficult, time-consumin...
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...y for future unambiguous identification using an integrative taxonomic approach that combines morphology and molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. Adult P. websteri exhibit a high degree of morphological plasticity in the palp pigmentation pattern, the shape of the anterior edge of the prostomium, the shape of the major spines on chaetiger 5, and the shape of the pygidium. The COI gene sequence demonstrated t...
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3 focused on a rapid identification of dengue virus from larvae of Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) by using PCR. During this study, larvae of A. aegypti and A. albopictus were collected from different localities of Lahore during May to September of 2012 to 2014. RNA extracted from each mosquito larvae pool was tested by nested PCR for detection of dengue virus. Out of total 50 pools of Aedes aegypti larvae,...
Sadaf Ijaz Malik1, Kiran Afshan2* and Mazhar Qayyum1
...vely high. Morphological identification of G. expalanatum was carried out on the basis of size and shape of worm. The hematological and bile biochemical changes were found in two groups. Pathologically significant changes were observed in the infected tissue. The parasites had formed pocked in the bile duct mucosa, glandular hyperplasia, thickened blood vessels. The results demonstrate that morphological markers, pathological, hematological and bile bio...
Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3
Shahzad Ali1,*, Heinrich Neubauer2, Falk Melzer2, Iahtasham Khan1, Shamim Akhter3,Tariq Jamil2 and Sajid Umar3

Muhammad Asif Zahoor1, Zeeshan Nawaz1, Abu Baker Siddique1, Sajjad ur Rahman2 and Shahid Ali1*

... compared with molecular identification of Mycoplasma infections. A total of 96 tissue samples from trachea, air sacs, lungs and oral swabs along with blood from each bird were collected and initially subjected to isolation of Mycoplasma spp. using brain heart infusion broth supplemented with horse serum. The blood was used for serum plate agglutination assay. Thereafter, the samples were subjected to genomic DNA extraction to detect Mycoplasma spp. using mult...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...tify;">The detection and identification of viruses has been a challenge since the advent of the discipline of plant virology over a century ago.Agreat variety of methods have been developed that permit differentiation of viral pathogens.These methods, initially based solely on identifying the distinct biological characteristics of different viruses, were soon supplemented with methods based on light or electron microscopy and serology and subsequently by Enzym...

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
...ided for helping in easy identification of the species. Keywords: Database, insect-pest, parasitoids, Manipur

Sadia Munir1a, Asif Nadeem1a*, Maryam Javed1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3 and Sidra Manzoor1 
...e help of BLAST for SNPs identification. This is a first report toward genetic screening of this gene at molecular level in Sahiwal cattle of Pakistan. No work has been reported on this gene in Sahiwal cattle. In this study, a new set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were reported. Heterozygosity, allelic and genotypic frequencies of identified variants were also determined. Chi2 test was performed to evaluate the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium...

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...dentical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. In this study, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) genes of two LSDV isolates from Ixodid (hard) ticks (Amblyomma hebraeum) in Egypt. Multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences revealed that both isolates had nine nucleotide mutations in comparison with the local reference strain, LSDV-Egypt/89 Ismalia. Compared with the GPCR sequences of SPV ...
Baohua Chen1,2, Wenzhu Peng3, Jian Xu2, Jingyan Feng1,2, Chuanju Dong1,2 and Peng Xu2,3,*
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...n competencies regarding identification of input supply dealers’ malpractices and evaluation of pesticide companies activities. Timely appointment and delegation of authorities to subordinate staff were the top two utmost possessed competencies to perform efficiently and effectively of their assigned responsibilities followed by the third top ranked competency of helping field assistants to plan extension activities. The lowest competencies of AEOs repor...
Mehran Kausar1,2, Naveed Ashraf3, Farzana Hayat4, Asraf Hussain Hashmi1, Saima Siddiqi1,* and Mariam Anees2
... molecular diagnosis. Theidentification of the same variant in CTSK as identified in other families from Pakistan suggests that it is common due to a founder effect.
Kulsoom Akhter1, Tahseen Ghous1,2,Saiqa Andleeb3,*, Faiz-ul-Hassan Nasim4, Samina Ejaz5, Zain-ul-Abdin1, Bilal Ahmed Khan1 and Muhammed Naeem Ahmed1
...dy deals with isolation, identification and characterization of some indigenous heavy metal resistant bacteria isolated from rhizosphere of Tagetes minuta, growing in soil adjoining automobile workshops to investigate their bioaccumulation capacity for three selected metals Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II). The plant was selected due to its natural abundance in the climate of Kashmir and also in the area of study. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, 16...
Lu Liu1, Sher Khan Panhwar2, Tianxiang Gao3, Zhiqiang Han3, Chunhou Li4, Dianrong Sun4 and Na Song1,*
...ective DNA barcoding for identification.
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Yue-Hui Ma2, Ming-Xing Chu2, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Hui-Jiang Gao2, Huai-Zhi Jiang3, Di Liu4, Li Liu5, Yan-Bin Zhu6, Wang-Dui Basang6, Luo-Bu Danjiu7, Tian-Wu An8, Xiao-Lin Luo8, Shi-Cheng He7 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*

H.I. Hosein1, Sherin Reda Rouby1*, Ahmed Menshawy1 and Ahmed E. AbdAl-Ghany2 

...tudies for isolation and identification of Brucella organisms. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 could be recovered from 64 (61.5%) tissue specimens and 28 (60.9%) milk samples. Brucella cultures were further identified on molecular basis using universal and Bruce ladder PCR. 

Ikramul Haq1, Aneela Zameer Durrani*1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Imtiaz Ahmad3, Amjad Khan2 and Mehboob Ali1
Syed Kashif Nawaz*, Faiza Zubair and Sidra Kanwal
... NCBI map viewer for the identification of exact loci of overlapping genes. It was noticed that maximum number (635) of overlapping genes were present on chromosome 1. Chromosome 21 carried the minimum number (85) of overlapping genes. Overlapping genes were further categorized on the basis of their orientation. It was found that the human genome has 62% embedded genes, 17% convergent genes, 16% divergent genes and 5% uni-directional genes. These categories ma...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

...or bacterial growth. For identification of the characteristic bacterial colonies Cmm-specific primers CMM-5 and CMM-6 were used for amplification of 614bp product from pat-1 gene of bacterial plasmid. The whole bacterial DNA was used as template, extracted with standard procedures using commercially available kit i.e. protinase-K (sigma). 27 out of 34 isolates were confirmed as Cmm having 614bp band. Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L) was the only weed from w...
Bashir Ahmad1, Muhammad Idrees1,*, Kafeel Ahmad1, Dawood Ahmad2, Sajid Ali3 and Shumaila Bashir4
...lternative to phenotypic identification in a routine diagnostic laboratory. High diversity values were found in the studied area implying high population diversity of M. tuberculosis that’s being prevalent in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad and Ijaz Ashraf** 

...the area of insect pests identification was ranked st 1 with mean value 3.22 closely followed by insect pests control by local nd rd recipes and their mass killing which were ranked 2 and 3 with mean values 3.03 and 2.84, respectively. Likewise, chemical and manual weed st nd control measures were ranked 1 and 2 with mean values 2.99 and 2.97, respectively. Correspondingly, farmers' skills in furrow irrigation was ranked at the top with mean value 3.32 followe...

 Rashid Minhas*, Iftikhar Ahmad Khan**, Faisal Saeed Awan**, Lal Hussain Akhtar*, Syed Awais Sajid Shah* and M. Shahjhan Bukhari* 

...tic diversity and hybrid identification. Out of the 26 RAPD primers used for DNA amplification, 14 primers produced polymorphic bands, while 12 produced monomorphic bands. These 14 primers yielded total 96 RAPD markers, out of which only 40 were found polymorphic which resulted in 41.66% polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The number of RAPD markers produced ranged from 4 to 12. Average number of 6.40 bands per primer was observed. On the whole, 87.50% g...


Shakir Ullah*, Aish Muhammad*, Iqbal Hussian*, Hafeez-Ur-Rahman**, Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder***, Muhammad Din**** and Nizamud Din

... study may be useful for identification and morphological variations of
apricot in Pakistan.
Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1,2,, Shan Liang1, Muhammad Saleem Kalhoro2, Shoaib Ahmed Pirzado2, Nasir Rajput2, Muhammad Naeem2, Fahmida Parveen2 andYongjie Liu1*
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,*, Sarfraz Ali Tunio1, Shaista Bano Memon1, Abdul Sattar Qureshi2 and Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto
...could be applied for the identification of various enzymes on routine basis directly in bacterial cultures and biological fluids.
Archana Naithani, Pongthep Suwanwaree* and Bartosz Nadolski
...rovince, resulted in the identification of 94 bird species belonging to 12 orders and 35 families. Altogether 3,328 individuals were observed. Out of 35 Families, Sturnidae and Sylviidae hadthe highest number of species (5 species each).Six simple dietary guilds were observed during the present study; the maximum number of species belonged to insectivore group and minimum to nectarivore. Analysis of data revealed that the average of species diversity index of ...
Aqeela Ashraf1,2,*, Muhammad Imran1 and Yung-Fu Chang2
...from bovine mastitis and identification of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes associated with them. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method. Resistance and virulence genes were detected by PCR. The results showed that 100% of isolates were resistant to penicillin, 54% to ampicillin, 44% to tetracycline and 30% to streptomycin, while none of them was resistant to chloramphenicol. These E. coli isolates carrie...
Ayesha Munir, Hafiz Muhammad Umer, Anjum Nasim Sabri and Imran Sajid*
...along with the molecular identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed that caries isolates are pathogenic S. mutans and soil isolates belong to the genus Streptomyces. The antibiotic resistance profile of S. mutans illustrated resistance to optochin. The antimicrobial screening of Streptomyces against S. mutans showed that these strain are the prolific producers of active agents to inhibit the growth of caries causing...
Muhammad Shahbaz1,*, Muhammad Anwar Iqbal1, Arshad Javid2, Abu ul Hassan Faiz1, Irfan3 and Muhammad Irshad Arshad4
...s that help in clear cut identification of various Pipistrellus species. The external body, cranial and bacular features of the species were compared with available literature.
Musrrat Fatima, Muhammad Saad Khan, Hamid Rashid, Asim Mehmood, Sumaira Kanwal, Muhammad Asif Rasheed and Farrukh Jamil*
Nasreen Ishaq1, Arif Rasheed Malik2, Zameer Ahmad1, Saad Ehsan Ullah3
...basically the science of identification and during last few decades multiple research work has been conducted for detection of different methods of identification to establish a baseline of identity e.g. dental data, fingerprinting, DNA analysis, anthropometry, identification of sex, assessment of age, determination of height and blood groups identification<...
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
Sahar Naz1, Farhan Rasheed2, Muhammad Saeed3*, Shagufta Iram4 and Ambereen Anwar Imran5
...erial culture. Bacterial identification was performed according to standard guidelines. Every gram-negative isolate was further processed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by modified Kirby Baur disc diffusion method. Zone sizes were interpreted according to CLSI 2016 guidelines. Next day every carbapenem-resistant isolate were further processed for MβL detection by EDTA method, zone size of Carbapenem disc only and Carbapenem disc impregnated with...
Munir Ahmad1, Aisha Hameed2*, Saba Khaliq3, Hamid Saeed Malik4 and Shahida Mohsin5
...niversally accepted, the identification of TEL-AML1 fusion gene in ALL, will improve risk stratification and will help in selection of appropriate therapeutic regimens.
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
...medium for isolation and identification of Mycoplasma species. Confirmed mycoplasma isolates were subjected to species specific PCR to identify members of MM cluster. Results revealed that 79/300 (26.3%) samples were found positive for the growth of Mycoplasma. MM cluster specific PCR showed 49 (16.3%) samples were found positive, of which 34 (11.3%) were found positive for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) and 15 (5%) w...
Ayesha Aihetasham, Saira Shariq and Javed Iqbal Qazi*
...ducted for isolation and identification of fungal species from cadavers of notorious subterranean termite, Heterotermes indicola. Virulence of Rhizopus stolonifer isolate and resultant variations in food consumption of H. indicola workers were evaluated over a period of one month by employing surface culture method. Following different time exposures, R. stolonifer significantly produced epozootics on the tested insects, with result...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2, Sumaira Maqsood3, Ishita Ahuja4 and Atle M. Bones4
Lamiaa Elsayed Mokhtar Deef
...astern Africa. The exact identification of species is fundamental for an efficient assessment of changes related to the appearance of non-native species in an environment. The biometrics and molecular markers were used to confirm the identification of A. albiventris at the species level. In the current work 757 bp and 668 bp were identified as regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) and mitochondrial 12S rRN...
Nimra Naseer, Adeela Fatima and Imran Sajid*
...bacterial pathogens. The identification of strains was done by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization and by 16SrRNA gene sequencing. For biological screening different methods including cross streak, agar plug and well diffusion method were performed. Seven Streptomyces strains including NWMD-6, NWMD-7, NWMD-10, NWMD-11, NWMD-12, NWMD-15 and NWMD-16 were found to have significant antimicrobial activity against MDR bacterial patho...
Muhammad Zahid1, Aneela ZameerDurrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1, KhushiMuhammad1,Muhammad Usman1,*, Muhammad Husnain1 and Nadeem Kamal2


Muhammad Khan
...involving de novo identification, characterization and validation of new bioactive molecules. Proscillaridin A (PSD-A), is a natural cardiac glycoside molecule used to treat cardiac arrhythmia. Recently, it has been rediscovered for its potential anticancer activity. This review will mainly focus on the anticancer activity, cellular targets and anticancer mechanism of PSD-A which may help the further design and conduct of research and repositioning...

Mohammad Salim1, Arshad Javid2*, Ali Hussain2, Faiz-ur-Rahman3, FarmanUllah4, Hamidullah5

Distribution records of fruit bats Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaultii from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...e of the key features in identification of bat species and was applied
for species confirmation of R. leschenaultii. R. leschenaultia has been already reported while C. sphinx being
reported for the first time from the study area. Pteropus giganteus is another new record from the region.


Hafiz Muhammad Umer Qaisar1, Tanveer Ahmad2, Muhammad Rizwan3*, Muhammad Saqib1

Antimicrobial efficacy of combination of lincomycin and spiramycin (Lispiracin™) as systemic dry cow therapy for controlling bovine mastitis
...c cell count, isolation, identification and purification of microbiological
cultures. The mean score of surf field mastitis test of G1 group before treatment
and at day 14thpost calving was significantly different (p<0.05) as compared to G2
group Somatic Cell Count was significantly reduced from 8.0 at dry off to 3.50
(P<0.05) after day14th post calving in lispiracin™ group. Quarter wise prevalence
(%) of clinical...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

...ular method was used for identification of pathogens. Under classical approach the infected sections from the skin of kinnow was utilized to grow fungal colonies on generalized media, i.e. potato dextrose agar, from which six fungal colonies were also isolated and studied further. Under molecular approach direct DNA was isolated from the infected skin of sampled fruits by using CTAB method. The pathogens being identified through classical approach includes: Pe...

Babar Tasim1, Tariq Masood1*, Zafar Ali Shah1, Muhammad Arif2, Ata Ullah1, Ghazal Miraj3 and Muhammad Samiullah4 

...urface functional groups identification by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and structure morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were carried out in biochar samples by using standard methods. Statistical analysis of the data revealed significant difference for proximate composition, pH, EC and macro and micro nutrients. Biochar obtained from Sesbania stem was found high in fixed carbon content (66.9%) and volatile matter (27%) but low i...

Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Muhammad Irfan Zafar1, Faqeer Hussain2, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3 and Azhar Ali Khan3 

Hamidullah1,*, Arshad Javid2, Basit Rasheed1,Jehan Zeb3, Abidullah1 and Muhammad Iftikhar Khan1
...that helped in clear cut identification of these bat species.
Imran Bodlah1, Ammara Gull-E-Fareen1, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Muhammad Amin2, Ayesha Aihetasham3
...s areas of Pothwar. Main identification characters of N. mirabilis supported with measurements and illustrations are provided here with notes on distributional range.
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Muhammad Jafir1, Muhammad Wajid Javed1, Sumaira Maqsood3 and Samina J.N. Ahmad1,2,*

 Jawaria Shaheen1, Samiah Shahid1, Sabahat Shahzadi2, M. Waheed Akhtar1,3 and Saima Sadaf1,*

 Ping Zhang1,2, Yabin Pu1, Yu Zhang2, Jia Chen2, Kunfu Wang3, Qian Li3, Yujiao Sun3, Yuehui Ma1, Shuqing Jiao2,* and Weijun Guan1,*

... isolation, cultivation, identification and differentiation potential of Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) from sheep skeletal muscle and provide an experimental evidence for clinical application. The skeletal muscle tissue were studied from fetal sheep, and the stepwise digestion by XI collagenase and trypsin was used to isolate MDSCs and were purified by differential attachment technique. Cell morphology were observed using an inverted microscope, and MDSCs ...
Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1,*, Shahina Fayyaz2 and Nasira Kazi2
... samples resulted in the identification of one new species of soil nematode viz., Acrobeloides gossypii n. sp., along with three new record species viz., Tylenchorhynchus ewingi Hopper, 1959; T. crassicaudatus Williams, 1960 and Pratylenchus pseudofallax Café-Filho & Huang, 1989. Description, measurements and illustrations of these species are incorporated herein.

Hafiz Umar Farid1, Muhammad Zubair2, Zahid Mahmood Khan1, Aamir Shakoor1*, Behzad Mustafa1, Aftab Ahmad Khan3, Muhamad Naveed Anjum4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Muhammad Mubeen

Asma Yousafzai1,*, Muhammad Luqman2, Nisar Ahmed1, Muneeza Arbab1,Muhammad Murad1, Naheed Sajjad3, Sara Naudhani1, Shakeela Daud1, Abdul Hameed Baloch4, Khushnaseeb5, Sana Zahoor6, Zahid Rauf7, Muhammad Mohsin Javed6 and Jamil Ahmad1
Sehrish Ashraaf1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Muhammad Akram Qazi2, Shaukat Ali1*
.... Based on morphological identification and sequencing of CO1 gene, a total of 22 species of spiders belonging to five families were investigated and compared within each species and among families for nucleotide frequency distribution of all species collected. We had found non-significant difference in frequency of nucleotides in COI within the members of species and within families (thymine 41.30-44.30%, adenine 24.96-27.19%, guanine 17.18...
Muhammad Saeed1,2,*, Tariq Mukhtar1 and Malik Abdul Rehman3
... the nematode to citrus, identification of key factors that influence population densities, and to devise effective management strategies. In the present study, seasonal fluctuations in the population densities of T. semipenetrans were studied in two citrus orchards naturally infested with citrus nematode during the year 2014. The effect of soil temperature was also evaluated on the populations of the nematode. The nematode populations differed signific...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1*, Taiba Sharif3, Samina J.N. Ahmad2, Sumaira Maqsood4 and Fariha Zafar3 
Huma Sattar1, Sehrish Firyal1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Habib-Ur -Rehman2, Muhammad Sajid Hasni3 and Amjad Islam Aqib4*
Sajida Sabahat1, Asif Nadeem1,*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor1, Shahid Nabeel1 and Abu Saeed Hashmi2
Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Asma Ashraf 2*, Iram Liaqat2, Bushra Mazhar2, Shaukat Ali2 and Saiqa Andleeb3
Shahid Sherzada1,2,4,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan4, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Idrees3, Abdul Wajid2, Muhammad Nauman Sharif3, Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal3, Iram Amin3 and Muhammad Shahid3
...n Pakistan. However, the identification and phylogeny of these fish species are of much interest today. DNA barcoding is used as a bio-identification tool for the organism globally. The current study was also conducted for the fast and accurate identification of Indian major carp species. The fishes used in this study were captured from four geographically isolated districts of Punjab prov...
Chiping Kong1,2, Yongheng Wu1,2, Shangling Lou1, Benping Chen3, Simon D. Dowell4 and Yiqiang Fu1*
...y, we explore individual identification in the songs of male Emei Shan Liocichla, a vulnerable babbler that inhabits dense vegetation. We recorded territorial songs of male Emei Shan Liocichla from Laojunshan National Nature Reserve during the breeding season of 2016, in southern Sichuan, China. We used three methods to compare the acoustic difference among and within individuals. The results demonstrated that male Emei Shan Liocichlas had individually distinc...
Doulat Khan1, Hamayun Khan1, Nazir Ahmad2, Muhammad Tarique Tunio3, Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Saleem Khan2 and Rifat Ullah Khan1*
...lood for early pregnancy identification in cattle, buffalo, goats and sheep. A total of 120 blood were taken from jugular vein of different breeds of cattle (Achai, Achai x Jersey, Holstein Friesian and Jersey), buffalo (Nilli Ravi, Aza Kheli and non-descript), goats (Beetal, Teddy and non-descript) and sheep (Bulkhi, Karri and non-descript). In cattle, the average sensitivity, specificity, false pregnancy prognostic value, false non-pregnancy prognostic value...
Abdul Samad1, Raheela Asmat2, Muhammad Naeem1, Hamida Ali3, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa1, Ferhat Abbas1, Jannat Raza1,3 and Muhammad Tauseef Asmat1*


Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

...searchers. Nevertheless, identification of candidate gene(s) using advanced bioinformatic tools will ease the process and can select the suitable protein(s) to use in the development of specific and sensitive diagnostic assays and also effective vaccine candidates which are vital elements in control and eradication of any infectious disease from an endemic country. In this review, we describe different structures of mature pox virion with reference to vaccinia...

Hamoudi Naoual1, Alloui Nadir2*, Barberis Abdelhak2 and Boudaoud Amine2 

Muhammad Younis Laghari1,2, Zixia Zhao1, Yiwen Gong3, Punhal Lashari1,2, Shangqi Li1, Jian Xu1 , Ateeque Rahman Khooharo4, Jiongtang Li1,* and Yan Zhang1*
Gulnaz Afzal1, Ghulam Mustafa2*, Shakila Mushtaq3 and Amer Jamil4
... are difficult to use in identification of organisms. This problem can be inferred based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit 1 (CO1). In this study, we distinguished five species of spiders using their CO1 gene sequences and compared them with 40 earlier published sequences, retrieved from GenBank on the bases of maximum similarity index. The sequences of gene encoding CO1 of all five spider species were deposited in Ge...
Aftab Shaukat1,*, Sana Hanif2, Irfan Shaukat3, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem4,5, Shadab Shaukat6, Rizwan Shukat8, Shahid Ali Rajput9, Imran Shaukat10, Mubashar Hassan4, Khalid Mehmood7, Saqib Umar11 and Muhammad Ali Jamil1
...nly foundation for rapid identification of putative microRNA target. By utilizing experimentally validated targets, the search of further targets via bioinformatics tools help to predict gene target site. Keeping this in view, a study has been planned to investigate PDCD1 gene regulatory miRNA targets, their sequences and their seed location in human using online server miRDB. We have identified 26 specific

Arfan Ahmed Gilal1*, Lubna Bashir1, Muhammad Faheem2, Asad Rajput1, Junaid Ahmed Soomro1, Saifullah Kunbhar1, Abdul Samad Mirwani1, Tanzeela-ul-Zahra1, Ghulam Sarwar Mastoi3 and Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahito

...icts of upper Sindh. The identification of FAW was done based on its morphological characters. More damage was recorded in fodder corn than grain corn. The presence of FAW was also recorded from sorghum and millet. The 100% damage was recorded on fodder corn in Shaheed Benazirabad district. Although this is the first record of FAW from Sindh, Pakistan, but, a country wide study along with molecular identification of FAW shou...
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees
...rimers were used for the identification of the viral genome. Thirty samples were found PCR positive and a subset of ten samples was direct sequenced. Sequence analysis showed 94% similarity to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia which is considered to be the second most prevalent bacterial species in mosquitoe’s midgut. This observation may lead  towards the confusion that the outbreak is either of Dengue or Chikunguna virus. In conclusion, confirma...

Asad Ullah1*, Umar Sadique2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2 and Farhan Anwar Khan

Ke Zhang1, Shuai Liu2, Qiu Chen1, Yu Wang1, Li Liu1, Bingjie Li1, Kai Ma1, Xiaoya Wei1, Aijun Li3 and Junyan Li2*
Mahvish Rajput1, Abdullah G. Arijo1, Muhammad Bachal Bhutto1Rehana Shahnawaz Buriro2, Javaid Ali Gadahi1, Muhammad Naeem3 and Zubair Ahmed Laghari1*
...netic marker for species identification.
Dil Afroza Khanom1, Amirun Nesa1, Muhammad Abu Sayed Jewel1, Muhammad Ayenuddin Haque1, Alok Kumar Paul1, Sonia Iqbal2, Usman Atique2,3*, Lubna Alam4
...useful insights into the identification of potential risks of these commercially valuable fishes to the continuous consumption of fish flesh originating from a contaminated water body may lead to heavy metals toxicity leading to mental retardation, kidney tissue damages, cancerous cell growth, and even death in case of chronic exposure. 

Ghani Akbar 

...ew study was focussed on identification of strategies for the conservation of natural resources, improvement of crops, horticulture, livestock, postharvest management and farm operation sectors in Malakand division. The study illustrated the potential for agricultural improvement, explored key issues and identified strategies and recommendations for agriculture sustainability and improved food security that may lead to better livelihood in Malakand division of...
Neelam Pery*, Nayab Batool Rizvi, Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq
... | The work presents the identification of novel dihydrodipyrrolopyridine-3-carboxamide derivatives as novel Janus kinase inhibitors with enhanced predicted efficacy and selectivity. 1, 7-dihydrodipyrrolo[2,3-b:3’,2’-e]pyridine moiety has emerged as novel hinge binding motif with features suitable to be explored for the development of ATP competitor kinase inhibitors for different medical conditions.

Muhammad Raheel Faiz1, Ijaz Ashraf1, Haq Nawaz2, Muhammad Zubair3*, Muhammad Sajid Mahmood4, Sajid Hussain5 and Abdul Qadeer2 

Rafiullah Khan1, Sakhi Jan1*, Muhammad Amjad1, Saeed Badshah1, Sajjad Ahmad1 

...has been assessed by the identification of the non-linearity in the compliance curve of the double cantilever test
specimen after the delamination extension. The effect of fibre bridging was investigated by cutting the bridging fibres
during fatigue delamination. The fatigue test data was process using fracture mechanics principles. The delamination
growth rate in laminates was characterized using approach of strain energy release rate. Th...

Kulsoom Iftikhar1, Shahzad Anwar1, Izhar Ul Haq1, Muhammad Tahir Khan1 and Sayed Riaz Akbar1 

...ases in the world. Early identification of breast carcinoma
could be beneficial for in time treatment of the disease. This study presents an efficient classification method
for benign and malignant breast cancer. The proposed method employs an optimal feature classification employing
artificial neural network. The proposed architecture has five input nodes, two hidden layers with eight neurons each
and one output node. Five features...

Yasir Irfan Badrashia1, Qaisar Alia1, Mohammad Ashraf1, Muhammad Rashid1 

...r cities of Pakistan for identification and
quantification of material and detailing disparities between design specifications and construction practices. The effect
of these disparities was studied using quasi-static cyclic testing on two exterior beam-column connections; EJ-1A
(code-compliant) with no deficiencies and EJ-2A (non-compliant) incorporating all identified deficiencies. Damage
patterns and hysteretic force-deformation ...
Sitara Nawaz1, Shamaila Irum1, Haroon Ahmed2, Shazia Shamas1, Sadia Roshan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi4, Irfan Ullah5*, Gulnaz Parveen3* can be beneficial for identification and control of sandflies. This study will help the researcher to uncover the critical areas of leishmaniasis and the most common species in Pakistan.

 Sikandar Bilal Khattak1*, and Iftikhar Hussain1


 Muhammad Naeem Khan Khattak1, Hamidullah1, Shehryar2

... justify;">After a broad identification of the major problems faced by the automotive industry of Pakistan this paper presents very useful analysis and comprehensive recommendations for solution of major problems of the automotive vendor industry. The problems of automotive vendor industry are identified as a result of interviews with vendors of the industry. The problems of car vendors are divided into five major categories: processes/ ope...
Dibyendu Biswas1*, Shib Shankar Saha2, Shankar Biswas3 and Md. Abu Sayeed4
Outbreak of Lumpy Skin Disease of Cattle in South-West Part of Bangladesh and its Clinical Management
...nical management of LSD, identification of risk factor and molecular characteristics of this disease in Bangladesh.


Markus I. Francis1*, Paul I. Ankeli2, Clara N. Kwanashie1, Jibril Adamu1, Lushaikyaa Allam1, Mashood A. Raji3, Godwin O. Egwu4, Flavio Sacchini5 and Massimo Scacchia5

Detection of Mycoplasma bovis from Cattle Presented for Slaughter in Adamawa and Taraba States, Northeastern Nigeria
... aimed to report the PCR identification of M. bovis from slaughtered cattle in northeastern Nigeria. Four hundred and eighty (480) samples of lung tissues (180), nasal swab (180), ear swab (60) and pleural fluid (60) were collected from 190 heads of cattle at slaughter in Yola and Jalingo abattoirs in Adamawa and Taraba States, respectively Samples were processed based on standard laboratory protocols. An overall Mycoplasma bovis isolation rate of 0.83% (4/480...

Hina Imtiaz1*, Salma Khalid2, Kashaf Riaz1, Muhammad Arshad Ullah3 and Zubair Rehman

...ed in the laboratory for identification and recommending suitable coagulant. Three different treatments were practiced i.e. Alum, Lime and Alum+ Lime. For alum, lime and alum + lime the settling time interval was 40, 35 and 20 minutes respectively. Results revealed that the combine treatment (Alum + Lime) effectively reclaimed Total Suspended Solid (TSS) up to 85%, along with 80% BOD, and 75% COD. Waste management is core issue that affects the health of peopl...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,*, Samina J.N. Ahmad1,2,*, Mubashir Ahmad Malik1, Abid Ali1, Muhammad Ali3, Ejaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Tahir2 and Muhammad Ashraf2
...tan. Precise and correct identification of any pest is very important to start a proper control strategy against it. The current study was conducted to identify and characterize locust species and to determine their association with other swarm forming locust species worldwide. Morphological features and molecular characters were observed using digital camera and PCR technique, respectively. For molecular identification, DNA...
Aribah Naz1*, Uzma Badar1,Afsheen Arif2*, Zaid Qureshi1, Sondas Saeed1,Erum Shoeb1, Maqsood Ali Ansari1 and Obaid Yusuf Khan1
...g have been done for the identification of the strain. 16S region was amplified by PCR and subjected to DNA sequencing. The sequence data analysis of the isolated strain showed 98% homology with Vibrio harveyi species. The sequence obtained has been submitted to NCBI under GenBank Accession# KY653092. Characterization of luminescent bacteria facilitates understanding of the environmental differences that favors the stability, survival and prolife...

Muhammad Jawad1*, Shahid Riaz Malik1, Rana Muhammad Atif2, Haris Ahmed2 and Muhammad Shahzad Afzal3

Species Identification of Gram Wilt Complex through ITS Region by PCR-RFLP Analysis
...useful technique for the identification of wilt complex pathogens. The study conducted to identify the polygenetic association of the pathogens of chickpea wilt complex. Universal Rice Primers based diversity analysis indicates high polymorphism within the collected wilt isolates. Primers ITS 1 and ITS 4 generated internal transcribed spacer fragments that were restricted four restriction enzymes (HhaeI, MboI, BsuRI, HinfI). PCR ITS-RFLP banding pattern identi...
Sehrish Firyal1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Umair Latif1, Muhammad Tayyab1, Muhammad Wasim1, Shagufta Saeed1 and Imaad Rashid2


...molecular marker for the identification of Pakistani lathy pigeon.
Murtaza, Shahid Ali*, Syed Attaullah Shah, Mehran Ahmad, Irfan Ullah and Jahangir Khan
Adoption of Hybrid Maize Technology in District Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...">The study was based on identification of the major determinants of adoption of hybrid maize technology in district Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A sample of 255 respondents in the study area was randomly chosen using a multistage random sampling technique. The logit model was used to measure the probability of adoption of hybrid maize technology. The estimated results of the model revealed that younger farmers were comparatively more adoptive of th...

Moazam Ali1, Wajid Ali2, Ayhan Ceyhan2 and Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta3*

Pigmentation Genome Influence in Animals and Human Interventions in its Course of Action
... appearance in wild, and identification. Pigmentation is a complex and multi-factorial regulated process to produce the melanin from melanocytes. Melanin amount, size, shape, and distribution control the color pigmentation of fiber, coat, and hairs in animals. Melanin production in an intricate course is under the control of Melanocortin 1 Receptor, alpha Melanocyte stimulating hormone and Agouti signaling gene. In most animals, three different alleles encodin...

Ashraf Ismail Afia1 and Ahmed Soliman Mohmed El-Nuby2*

Soybean Genotypes Response to Root-Gall Nematode
...n systems as well as the identification of resistance sources for breeding purposes.


Sehrish Ashraaf1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1* and Sajida Naseem2

...cies where morphological identifications can be difficult e.g., delimitation of juvenile stages. Standard barcode region of CO1 gene of 64 samples was amplified. The sequences of 658 base pairs were recovered from 62 samples, representing 7 families, 20 genera and 27 species. Araneidae was the most dominant familyfollowed by Sal...

 Majid Shahi Bajestani1, Esmat Mahdikhani Moghadam2*, Reza Aghnoum3 and Hamid Rohani2

Study of Plant Parasitic Nematodes and Description of New Record (Rotylenchus alius) Associated with Barley (Hordium vulgare L.) in Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast Iran
...gical and morphometrical identification 18 species were recorded belonging to nine genera. Among these species, Rotylenchus alius was found as a new record from Iran and Basiria gracilis, Boleodorus thylactus, Ditylenchus apus and Meloidogyne arenaria were reported as new host record from barley fields of Iran. Meloidogyne arenaria, was selected for detailed investigation at molecular level. Molecular traits on Meloidogyne arenaria species done by partial 18s ...

Kecheng Zhu1,2,3, Peiying He1, Baosuo Liu1,2,3, Huayang Guo1,2,3, Nan Zhang1,2,3, Liang Guo1,2,3, Shigui Jiang1,2,3 and Dianchang Zhang1,2,3,* 

Zeki Aras1*, Gökçenur Sanioğlu Gölen1, Zafer Sayin2 and Ali Evren Haydardedeoğlu3

 Amna Arshad Bajwa1, Saher Islam1, Muhmmad Imran1, Karman Ashraf2, Arman Khan1, Muhammad Farhan Khan3, Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor1Waseem Ahmad Khan4 and Wasim Shehzad1*

Sidra Shehzadi, Sher Bahadar Khan*, Umar Sadique and Saqib Nawaz

Isolation and Molecular Identification of Clostridium perfringens Type D in Goats in District Peshawar
...tion  and molecular identification of new strains of C. perfringens Type D for effective diagnosis, treatment and vaccination. A total of 100 fecal samples  were collected aseptically from four different zones of district Peshawar during the period of February, 2019 to April, 2019. C. perfringens  Type D was confirmed through bacterial culturing, Gram staining, biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) . Results revealed that 25 feac...

Muhammad Kashif Khan1*, Muhammad Wasim Jan Khan2, Kaleem Ullah Jan Khan3, Muhammad Ishaq Khan4, Muhammad Faheem Jan Khan5 and Abdul Salam Lodhi6


Impacts of Construction Risk Attributes on Organizational Performance of Registered Construction Companies in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...ure is available on risk identification, analysis, and mitigation through various methods and techniques. The purpose of this study is to address the need of risk management practices in the construction industry of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. The research work carried out with the involvement of 150 Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) registered construction companies not only emphasizes on the crucial risk factors associated with construction projects...
Q. Sun1, Q. Liu1, R. Di1, Y. Wang1, S. Gan2, S. Liu2, X. Wang1, W. Hu1, X. Cao1, Zh. Pan1, X. Guo1, Y. Yang3, H.E. Rushdi4* and M. Chu1*
Chaojie Yang1,2,3, Haishan Wang1,2,3, Le Ye1,2,3 and Zhi Chen1,2,3,*
...="font-size: small;">The identification of species constitutes the basic step in phylogenetic studies, biodiversity monitoring and conservation. The morphological descriptions and DNA barcoding study about Muraenesocidae in the East China Sea were old, rough and deficient. Morphometric measurements and meristic counts were taken for all collected Muraenesocidae samples in our present study. Teeth characters that are conclusive for the species were consistent w...
Arnab Tanveer, Shabana Naz*, Azhar Rafique and Asma Ashraf
...s used for isolation and identification of endo-parasites. Modified McMaster technique was used to calculate Eggs per gram. The data was subjected to ANOVA and Tukey-HSD (post hoc test). Six species of endo-parasites were identified from Jallo Wildlife Park. Eimeria (7500) and Ascaris (1100) were the most abundant. Murree Wildlife park had only two species i.e. Eimeria (3850) and Strongyloides (350). In Bahawalanagar Wildlife Park, ...
Zhen-Yang Wu1, Li Li1, Yu-Hua Fu2, Sheng Wang3, Qing-Ming An1, Xiao-Hui Tang4, Xiao-Yong Du3,5,* and Fei Zhou6,*
Shikang Deng1,2, Yan Jin2, Jing Xu2, Xiufang Zhu2, Pinghai Hu2, Jiao Li2, Li Zhang2 and Jianzhong Tang2,*
...ere obtained. After cell identification, the bile duct scar fibroblasts were given different concentrations of 5-FU (0, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mmol/L). After 48 h of intervention, CCK-8 method was used to detect the cell proliferation level of each group; Western blot was used to detect the expression of TGF-β1, cyclinD1, and CDK4 protein in each group of cells; and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression levels of TGF-β1,...
Sana Mehmood1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1*, Muhammad Summer1, Sher Muhammad Sherawat2, Shaukat Ali1*, Sajida Naseem3
...nticity of morphological identifications of spiders from rice ecosystems of district Lahore, Sialkot and Mandi Bahauddin, Punjab, Pakistan by using DNA barcoding. A total of 2736 spiders were collected from July to October during 2018-19. They were brought to the laboratory for subsequent morphological identification, DNA extraction and sequencing. We identified 38 morph-species, representing 22 genera and 8 families. Accura...
Eslam Moradi-Asl1*, Behnam Mohammadi Ghalehbin2, Kamran Akbarzadeh3, Jafar Mohammad-Shahi4, Hajar Afshin4
... of medical Sciences for identification. This case is a first time was reported from Ardabil province, northwest of Iran and the Diabetics, Blindness and Physical inability to protect the wound were the most important factors in wound myiasis in this report. 

Hillary M.O. Otieno

A Review of White Mango Scale (Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead; Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Sub-Saharan Africa: Distribution, Impact and Management Strategies
...n providing the basis of identification of A. tubercularis. It also provides management strategies that could be adopted by mango farmers in the region. Last, it highlights key research themes worth prioritizing for better understanding and management of the pest in the region.
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,2*
...of signal molecules. The identification of signal molecules was achieved by GC-MS analysis. Intriguingly, GC-MS technique showed the presence of five different AHL-signal molecules (e.g., C-6, C-8, C-10, C-12, and C-14) produced by C. freundii B1. Moreover, extracellular cell...
Huan Yang1, Tingting Li1, Huimin Zhao1,2, Xiaoyuan Zhang1, Huiyan Xu1, Yangqing Lu1, Xingwei Liang1, Shengsheng Lu1, Xiaogan Yang1*and Kehuan Lu1*
... culture and preliminary identification were established. Testes from 3- to 6-month-old buffalos were digested with two-step enzymatic treatment to obtain isolated single cells and then enriched with a differential plating method. Isolated SSCs were cultured on STO feeder cells with SSCs culture medium (SSCM), which is serum-free. SSCs began to proliferate on the second day and quickly formed grape-like clusters that were consistent with the morphological feat...
Muhammad Zubair1, Habib Ahmad2*, Brian E. Hemphill3, Muhammad Tariq4 and Muzafar Shah5
Guofang Wu1,2, Xingxing Xue1, Wenjuan Shen1, Lei Wang1,2*, Yuhong Ma1 and Jiping Zhou1
Muhammad Qayash Khan1,2, Muhammad Zubair Anjum2, Muhammad Adnan3, Abbas Khan1, Hafsa Zahid1, Javed Nawab4, Sher Zaman Safi5Muhammad Ishaq Ali Shah6, Atif Kamil7 and Abid Ali1*
...t with the morphological identification and hence negated the existence of T. macrolepus. The genus Mystus was also found to be comprised of a single species: M. armatus. The COI sequence of M. armatus reported for the first time during this study will be a useful addition to the database. The present study strongly recommends the effectiveness of COI barcoding for species delineation over the traditional taxonomic met...
Iftikhar Hussain1, Sardar Azhar Mehmood1, Muzafar Shah2*, Mohammad Salim3, Shabir Ahmed1, Sana Ullah1,Sidra Batool4, Nadia Saeed1 and Khalid Usman1
... study for species level identification and phylogenetic relationships.
Eman Khalifa1*, Riad Khalil2 and Haitham Elaadli3
... Ziehl-Neelsen staining; identification by different biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 500bp diagnostic for M. bovis, as well as (2) to determine the therapeutic efficacy of the various antimicrobials (9 types) on the isolated M. bovis by using different antimicrobial sensitivity plate method. A total number of 100 samples of mastitic milk from native lactating buffaloes’ breed were collected aseptically from 4 privat...
Saba Shabeer1, Riffat Tahira2 and Atif Jamal3*
...ction, characterization, identification, and different economically important diseases associated with Fusarium species as well as their control are discussed in detail.
BamideleAkinsanya1, Isaac O Ayanda2,*, Benson Onwusa1 and Joseph K Saliu1
...hemicals, while parasite identification was done using conventional method. Only one parasite species, Teneuisentis niloticus, an acanthocephalan was recovered. There was 72% infection prevalence. The result also revealed that both BTEX and PAHs were accumulated in the body of the parasite. Two components of BTEX, (1,2-dichlorobenzene and 1,3-dichlorobenzene) and five PAH congeners-Acenaphthylene, Phenanthrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12...

Saad A. Moussa1, Ahmed F. Afify1*, Suzan Salah2 and Ayman Hamed3

..., also for isolation and identification of the local circulating BCoV strain for further diagnosis or vaccination. In cattle, Betacoronavirus 1 bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is primarily involved in enteric infections which leads to serious complication which may be fatal in young calves up to 3 months of age. A total of 20 fecal samples were collected in the winter season of 2018 and 2019, all samples were serologically screening by antigen-capture ELISA, then mo...
Saima Siddiqui1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Tajwar Sultana Syed 1Abdul Sattar Buriro2, Sohail Ahmad3, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed4 and Muhammad Asam Riaz4*


Muhammad Naveed1, Asif Nadeem1,2*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Fahad Bhutta3 and Ruqayya Bint Khalid1
...iminary step towards the identification of polymorphisms in STAT5A gene of Nili Ravi Buffalo. Further studies are required for the association of genetic polymorphisms of STAT5A gene with fertility related traits.
Abdul Muhaimin Wahab1, Basit Zeshan2,*, Naveed Ahmed2, Muhammad Afzal2 and Muhammad Naveed2
...ted with the occurrence, identification control and preventive measure to reduce the prevalence in broiler chicken farms in Kelantan state located at east coast region of peninsula Malaysia. Eighty cloacal swab samples were collected from 4 different broiler chicken farms in district Tumpat, Machang and Bachok. The samples were processed for identification of C. jejuni followed by PCR to detect the presence of C. j...
Naimat Ullah Khan1*, Muhammad Hassan Saleem2, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Shafee3, Ayesha Hassan2, Mumtaz Ali Khan2 and Nadeem Rashid3
Aiguo Zhou1,2, Di Sun1,2,Shulin Liu 1,2, Yongyong Feng1,2, Yue Zhang3
Yanfeng Chen4, Shaolin Xie1,2* and Jixing Zou1,2*


... markers in the study of identification for fish species, which has a fast evolutionary rate. And thus, in the present study, investigation of genetic comparison was performed based on the complete sequences of mtDNA control region for “Bicolor” and “White” types of northern snakehead (Channa argus) due to an uncertain classification of them. The results showed that the genetic distance for the inter-species ranged from 0.000 to ...

Bushra Baig and Saeeda Yousaf*

...d Neem were analyzed for identification of phytochemicals by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The result showed that Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Terpenoids and Phenolic compounds were found both in Black pepper and Neem.Quantitative analysis indicated 21 active componentsin Black pepper which were dominated byCaryophyllene (32.3%), Delta-3-carene (18.7%) and Cinene(15.5%). Neem showed 17 active components, among them Beta-Pinene (14.8%), Delta-E...

Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Hamid Bashir2, Shah Najaf Mukhtar1, Muhammad Arshad1, Nimra Altaf1

... population dynamics and identification of citrus mites during 2018. A total 37,963 mites specimens were collected in which nine species were identified from four families Cunaxa sp. (Cunaxidae); Amblyseious andersoni Chant, Euseius sp., Neoseiulus sp. (Phytoseiidae); Brevipalpus californicus Banks, B. phoenicis (Geijskes) (Tenuipalpidae), and Eutetranychus orientalis Klein, Panonychus citri (McGregor), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae). Brevipalpus sp....

Aioub Sofizadeh1, Ehsan Allah Kalteh2, Shahin Saeedi3, Mulood Mohammadi Bavani4*

...identified using a valid identification key. Distribution maps were prepared using ArcGIS (Ver 10.4.). A total of 111 scorpion samples were captured. All the samples belonged to the Buthidae family, including Mesobuthus eupeus (97.3%), Orthochirus farzanpayi (0.9%), and Mesobuthus caucasicus (1.8%). M. eupeus had the highest distribution and abundance in the region and was recognized as the leading cause of scorpion sting in the region. O. farzanpayi and M. ca...
Iqra Muzammil1, Muhammad Ijaz Saleem1, Amjad Islam Aqib2,*, Ambreen Ashar3Syed Ashar Mahfooz1, Sajjad ur Rahman4, Muhammad Shoaib4, Muhammad Aamir Naseer1, Imran Khan Sohrani1, Javeed Ahmad1, Razaullah Saqi1, Fizzah Laeeq Lodhi1 and
Qaisar Tanveer5
... the spot for subsequent identification of pathogenic strains of S. aureus through microbiological examination in the laboratory. Non-probability statistical tools conferred 42% (84/200, CI=35.37-48.93) prevalence of subclinical mastitis, 38.1% S. aureus (32/84, CI=28.45-48.79), 15.6% MRSA (5/32, CI=6.87-31.76), 46.9% haemolytic S. aureus (15/32, CI=30.87-63.56) and 34.4 % biofilm producing S. aureus (11/32, CI=20.41-51.69). Earthen...

Hajira Nur-ul-Islam1, Ahmed Zia2*, Khurshaid Khan1, Hirad Ali3 and Abdul Aziz3

Amreen Zahra1, Mushtaq A. Saleem1*, Hasnain Javed2, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan3, Muhammad Naveed1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4
...sure contributing to the identification of novel mutations like S61A, S61M and M90L at Gag-Pol cleavage sites harboring dominant drug resistance mutations. 3D structure validation demonstrated 87.3% in Gag and 92.5% in Pol in the most favored regions. Dolutegravir, a protease inhibitor, was used for molecular docking to reveal the drug resistance sites among the isolates under investigation. However, strikingly the binding energies resulted were -7.9 kcal/mol ...

Kiran Shahjeer1*, Gauhar Rehman1, Khurshaid Khan1 and Toheed Iqbal2

... techniques of molecular identification.

Maria Qibtia1, Muhammad Wasim1, Farzana Chowdhary1, Muhammad Tayyab1, Sehrish Faryal1, Ahmed Mansouri2, Zeeshan Ahmad2, Muhammad Hamid3 and Ali Raza Awan1,*
...ere investigated for the identification of mutations in the LCT-gene. In comparison of 30 subject with lactose persistence (LP) considered as healthy group. A total of 13 genomic mutations were identified, 1 in the promoter region and 12 in the intronic/exonic region of LCT-gene. Among these 12 mutations, 6 of them are novel in origin. The novel mutations were found in intron 4 c.(918+116)A>C, intron 12 c.(4877+20)G>A, intron 15 c.(5346+35)...
Shuang Yang1,2, Huiting Zhao3, Xuewen Zhang2, Kai Xu1, Lina Guo1, Yali Du1 and Yusuo Jiang1,*

Gulnaz Parveen1*, Naila Mukhtar2, Shumaila Irum3 and Nain Bukhari4

...ndled. Hence, the proper identification of the causal pathogen is important before appropriate treatment can be made to control the pathogens. Therefore, In the present study, Alternaria alternata, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Drechslera, Penicillium, and Geotrichum candidum were identified among various vegetables including potato, carrot, okra, eggplant, turnip, cucu...
Rahma Mohamed, Sara Nader, Dalia Hamza and Maha A. Sabry*
...rnorate (25). Phenotypic identification of Cryptococcus indicated that 13.2 % and 7.1% among healthy and diseased donkeys were positive for this pathogen, respectively.The study of the potential risk factors associated with Cryptococcus colonization in the donkeys did not show any statistically significant differences. Molecular serotyping of 6 identified Cryptococcus spp. evidenced C. gattii in the nasal passages of 4 healthy donke...

NawalM. Abdulla1, M. Haroun1*,Mohamed A. Shalaby2and Ahmed A. Elsanousi2

...irst trail of isolation, identification and characterization of Newcastle disease virus
(NDV) field strains was reported in two captivated falcons(Falcoperegrinusperegrinus)
in Qatar.Virus cultivation in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonating chicken eggs
(ECE),haemagglutination (HA), haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and mean death time
(MDT)used in the investigation to reveal virus identity and pathogenicity...

Yasser F. Elnaker 1, Mohamed El-Tholoth 2, Sahar Saber 3, Amira A- Elsaid4, Mohamed A. Saad 3, Emad E. Younis 5

...Bovine Kidney (MDBK) and identification of isolated virus was done by indirect immunofluorescence test. The serum antibody titers were determined by serum neutralization test (SNT) and Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) in calves and also their dams. The results confirmed infection of calves with lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) and showed that calves older than 3 months old age and those out of first calf heifers are more susceptible for infection. Some...

El-Bagoury, G.F., El-Nahas, E.M., El-Habbaa, A.S.

...erological and molecular identification in correlation with BEFV Webster reference strain and showed an amplicon size 473 bp for G2 gene. In conclusion, BEFV field strains from cattle and buffaloes seem like but further molecular characterization was required to study their homology.


Ahmed K. El-Attar; Samah A. Mokbel; Ali H. Hamed

...iv>greenhouse. The virus identification was done by indirect ELISA using specific
antiserum and confirmed by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTPCR)
using virus-specific primers. The molecular characterization for the Egyptian
isolate has been performed through cloning and sequencing for the OYDV CP gene
which amplified by RT-PCR then cloned and sequenced in the TOPO cloning vector. The

Elharony, S.B.1,3, SaharA.Youssef2 and Richard F. Lee3

...virus like detection and identification. The method provides a
pure preparation of un-degraded RNA and DNA in high yield and
can be completed within 2 h. It is particularly useful for processing
large number of samples and for isolation of RNA and DNA from
small quantities of tissues. The method does not require expensive
and environmentally hazardous reagents and equipment. It can be
M. A. Kararah1, Om-Hashem M. El-Banna1, Salwa N. Zein2 and Abd-Elrehiem, A.F.3 

Sahar Abd El Rahman1; Mohamed Eladl2 and Mohamed M. El-Diasty3 samples for molecular identification of the virus showed 470 bp clear band in gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity of the utilized techniques in the identification and diagnosis of bovine ephemeral fever disease revealed that the virus isolation is a gold standard technique, as well, the immunofluorescence technique. RT-PCR proved to be a rapid, sensitive and specific tool for bovine ephemeral fever disease diagnosis.


Safaa M. Mohammed*, Shahira A. Abdelwahab**,Fetaih,H⃰ ⃰ ,Neveen,R⃰ ,Abdel satar ,A⃰ and Mohamed S. Elshahidy**

Nashwa M. Helmy1, Ahmed S. Ahmed2, and Zeinab3 Y. Mohamed against LSDV. Further identifications were carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and clinco-pathological investigation. Results: The results showed that 11/30 biopsies were positive by AGPT, 19/30 by IFAT and 30/30 by PCR. While results of sero-diagnosis showed that 45/100 from apparently healthy non vaccinated cattle and 68/100 from vaccinated cattle were positive by SNT respectively and in general 90/200 of tested cattle give protective antibody ...

Lamya A. F. Ateya1, Said A. Ahmed 2, Mansour H. Ayman3, Khamees K. Ashraf 4, Heba A. Abdel-Hady 5

...signed for isolation and identification of LSD virus on CAM and MDBK cell culture and identification of isolated virus by FAT and PCR. Methods: A total 23 skin biopsies were used for virus isolation on chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs SPF at 9-11 day which showed pock lesions and CPE on MDBK cell culture. Isolated virus was identified by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) using specific...

Lamya A. F. Ateya1 , Said. A .Ahmed2, Khamees K.S. Ashraf3, Heba A. Abdel-Hady4

...ghly effective for early identification of infected and vaccinated animals. Our study was designed for assessment of vaccination by local and imported FMD vaccines in cattle sera in Kalubeya Governorate. Methods: 220 serum samples were tested for FMD NSP by 3ABC Trapping ELISA.20 serum samples were used as control (no vaccination),100 serum samples collected from animals received local vaccine and 100 serum samples from animals received imported vaccine. Resul...

Manar F. Seioudy1, Magda M. Sayed1, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2 and Mohammed A. Shalaby2

...collected and tested for identification of PPRV by conventional RTPCR
using two primer sets targeting F-gene and N-gene and real time RT-PCR.
Results: By F-gene based RT-PCR, PPRV could be detected in only 2 samples out of 4samples (50%).
By N-gene based RT-PCR, PPRV could be detected in all samples (100%). By real time RT-PCR,
PPRV was detected in all the 4 samples.
Conclusion: Molecular techniques c...
Rasha M. Mahrous1,4, Ahmed K. El-Attar2, Ahlam A. AlWatban1, Sohair I. EL-Afifi3,
Nagwa M. Aref1,3
Ashraf S. Khameis, lamya F. Atteya, Ayman H. Mansour, Heba A. Abdelhady, Ashraf A.
... isolation and molecular identification of Sheep pox
virus from clinically affected sheep in El Menofiya governorate, Egypt during 2016. Additionally, the
isolated agent was identified using electron microscopy (EM).
Methods: Thirty five skin lesions of nodular and crusted scab samples were collected from clinically
infected SPV sheep and were prepared and isolated on chorioallantoic membrane of 9-11 days old
Dalia M. Omar1, Nermeen A. Marden1, Lamiaa M. Gaafar1, Elham A. El-ebiary1, Khalid El-Dougdoug2, Badawi Othman2, Abd Elsattar Arafa3, Hussein A. Hussein4
...or detection, isolation, identification and characterization
of Avian influenza viruses (AIV) circulating among poultry in 2016 to determine its suitability to be
used in vaccine quality control in Egypt.
Methods: The newly isolated virus was identified and subtyped antigenically by serological test as
Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) using standard AI antisera for H5 antigen and genetically by RTPCR

Akram I. Aboelkhair1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shahin1 and Hussein A. Hussein2

... Serological
identification was done by serum neutralization test ( SNT ) using reference antisera which confirm
presence of LSDV . By nucleotide sequences and genetic characterization was conducted on (G-PCR)
gene segment of these isolates.
Results: 93 samples were positive for LSDV by using conventional PCR direct from nodular lesion, 4
positive samples were inoculated on CAM showed characteristic p...

Shimaa M. Gad1, Ahmed A. Kheder1, Mohamed A. Awad 2

... detection and molecular identification of phytoplasma infecting
Gazania in Egypt.
Methods: Phytoplasma disease was detected and isolated from naturally infected gazania plants during
surveys in flower nurseries and open filed in Giza governorate, it was transmitted from naturally
infected Gazania to healthy periwinkle and other ornamental plants by dodder (Cuscuta reflexa ), and
the leaf hopper (Empo...
Hadeer M. Mossa, Ausama A. Yousif, Emad A. Aboelsoud, Mahmoud El Gamal, Ahmed El-
for virus identification and confirmation. The size of the produced amplicons was 192 pb for the
universal primer and 502pb, 1452pb for the specific primers respectively. Metagenomics is done to
evaluate a virus harvest for standardization by applying a suite of genomic technologies and
bioinformatics tools to directly represent the genetic content of entire communities of organisms in the
given ha...

Mohamed M. Mashaly1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shahein1, Hussein A. Hussein2

...s isolation,
identification, and vaccine or other diagnostic preparations mainly depend on the proper culture used.
Objective: Our aim was to study the growth kinetic of recent LSDV isolate to determine the culture
properties of recent LSDV isolated from skin nodule that could be useful in the attempts to develop
more effective LSDV vaccine and diagnostic purposes.
Methods: In order to isolate the LSD...

Rupinder Kaur1,2*, Pretty Bhalla3, Jubin Kumar Saini4 and Sayeeduzzafar Qazi5

... fill this gap with the identification of potential work stressors for this profession. The paper also aims to investigate whether employment type (permanent or temporary) affects the level of role stress among agricultural extension officials. The role of gender, age and marital status on stress levels has also been examined further. For this purpose, the data was collected in the year 2020 from 68 Agricultural Extension officials, which comprised 38 tempora...
Muhammad Noman Koondhar1, Asghar Ali Kamboh1,*, Muhammad Ammar Khan2, Riaz Ahmed Leghari3 and Parkash Dewani4
...on; isolation and identification of Salmonella serovars was done using the standard procedure, while antimicrobial profile was illuminated using the disk diffusion method. The results indicated that 21.34% beef samples exhibited the Salmonella contamination. The statistical analysis exhibited a significantly higher (p< 0.05) prevalenc...
Houqiang Luo1*, Yanfang Lan2, Ping Gan3, Wenjun Zhou4, Meng Wang1
Bing Hu5, Zhuning Zhang5, Yu Bai1* and Kun Li6*
Nianhong Huang, Yan Wu, Yuanyuan Li* and Jinhong Zhao*
... establishes a basis for identification of the genera Hepatozoon, increasing protection and prevention of parasitic diseases of snakes.

Khalid Mehmood1*, Abdul Rehman2 and Ammara Khan1

...he impact assessment and identification of factors affecting the adoption of improved groundnut varieties in Pakistan. An extensive field survey was conducted during 2019 to collect the data from the farmers of Potwar Plateau of Pakistan. Farmers’ preferences and perceptions of varietal characteristics were investigated. The elasticity of production was measured to compare the performance of improved and conventional groundnut varieties. Logit model was ...
Kai Jin1,2,3, Chen Chen 1,2,3, Xinyu Sun1,2,3, Caiye Zhu1,2,3, Mahmoud F. Ahmed1,2,3,4, Qisheng Zuo1,2,3, Jiuzhou Song4 and Bichun Li1,2,3*
Mona Kadry, Sara Mohamed Nader*, Esraa A. Elshafiee and Zeinab S. Ahmed
...solation and serological identification. PCR amplification of the ESBL and carbapenemase-encoding genes was performed. The bacteriological examination of the samples showed that 6 Salmonella strains [S. Typhimurium (3), S. enteritidis (2) and S. Infantis (1)] were isolated from chicken meat and eggshell surface samples. In human, it was found that 6 salmonella strains (S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, S<...
Aqsa Shahid1, Saima Muzammil1, Farhan Rasheed2,Bilal Aslam1, Muhammad Akhtar Ali3, Syed Zohaib Haider4, Masroor Ellahi Babar4, Muhammad Saeed1, Umair Waqas1 and Mohsin Khurshid1,*
...e collected. The initial identification of bacterial isolates was performed by standard microbiological techniques, and API 20E and for final confirmation multiplex PCR was performed using genus and species-specific primers. The susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents including the aminoglycosides was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to aminoglycosides was evaluated by the broth microdilution method. Moreov...

Usman Asghar1*, Muhammad Faheem Malik1, Umer Rashid2, Naeem Mahmood Ashraf2, Sumera Afsheen1 and Muhammad Hashim1

...ous and social concerns, identification of meat and meat products is a matter of great interest for general public. DNA-based identification methods are ideal and reliable. DNA was extracted from muscle tissues of cow, buffalo, goat, donkey and a dog. A set of degenerative primers was designed for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of the cytochrome b gene fragment. All PCR was accomplished at the same reaction conditions. Ampl...
Jia Liu1, Zhen Wang1, Zifan Ning1, Ali Mujtaba Shah2,3,Qing Zhu1, Yan Wang1, Huadong Yin1, Zhichao Zhang1, Lu Zhang1, Yaofu Tian1, Diyan Li1,Gang Shu2,4, Lin Ye1 and Xiaoling Zhao1,*
.... Here, we report on the identification of several candidate genes that may modulate myofiber growth and thus explain some of the differences in the skeletal muscle phenotype of FG and SG chickens. We collected pectoralis major (PM) and gastrocnemius muscles (GM) on d 1, 7, 28, 49, and 70 post-hatch, and measured the weights of the muscles, diameter and, a density of myofibers, and the expression abundances of MyoD, MyoG, IGF-1, and Pax...
Zahid Beg Mirza1,*, Naveed Ali Soomro2 and Farwah Shariff1
...ion camera helped in the identification of the species. During the surveys, information on the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, that is diclofenac and other drugs known to be harmful to vultures, were gathered through interviews. This paper suggests that the vultures and other raptors in the mountainous eco-region of Sindh are in relatively larger populations compared to the Eastern side of Sindh due to the abundance of wild ungulates in protected a...
Iqra Mobeen1*, Rabia Arif1*,Maimoona Ilyas1, Siu Fai Lee2 and Muhammad Saleem1
Farah Deeba1, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Muhammad Irfan2, Muhammad Khan1 and Javed Iqbal Qazi1*
...g 16S rRNA gene sequence identification technique. B. subtilis yielded highest chitinase on CPM at pH 7 with 3% inoculum size after incubating at 37 °C for 3 days. Plackett-Burman design was used for screening of medium components. The optimization of concentration of significantly impacted medium components for chitinase production was carried out using central composite design of response surface methodology. The maximum chitinase production was a...

Eman H. Mahrous1, Mohamed. W. Abd Al -Azeem2, Faisal A. Wasel1, Waleed Younis2* 

... conventional methods of identification. Recovery of P. multocida isolates of diseased rabbits from lung, liver, and heart were 23 (46%), 11 (22%), 13 (26%), respectively, with a total incidence of 47 (31.3%). Biochemical reactions proved that 20 (42.5%) out of 47 isolates had the typical biochemical properties of P. multocida. However, only 10 isolates were identified as P. multocida using species-specific primers by conventional PCR with an incidence of 6.7%...

Hailemariam Assefa1*, Tesfahun Dagnaw2 

... GC-MS and result in the identification of the compounds, (Palmitoleic acid methyl ester, Palmitic acid methyl ester, Linoleic acid methyl ester, Oleic acid methyl ester, Stearic acid methyl ester and etc) was obtained. In the present study various physical and chemical characteristics have been also studied. The results also indicated that the oil extracted from Neem seed is the most acidic and non edible.

Keywords | In vitro antimicrobial, Paper disk...

Longjun Guo*, Jiaqi Teng, Juan Wang and Yukun Chen
...ospinal fluid can enable identification of the occurrence of LA symptoms to a certain extent. Its combined use with DTI, an important tool for non-invasive analysis of the internal brain structure, is playing an increasingly important role in medical clinical and basic research.

M. Hanafy1, Rehab Elhelw2, Soliman M. Soliman3, Sherif Marouf2* 

...bjected to isolation and identification of Pasteurella species by conventional phenotypic method and genotypically by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At the level of biochemical characterization, the incidence of Pasteurella multocida was 40.4%, and Mannheimia haemolytica was 7.1%. Using KMT1 gene for identification of the isolates for P. multocida and SSE gene for identification of the i...

Sameh Abdel-Moez Ahmed Amer1*, Mohamed Abdel-Aziz Kutkat1, Mohamed Mahmoud Abdel-Baki1, Asmaa Mahmoud Maatouq1, Omnia Mohamed Kutkat2, Hagar Magdy Ahmed1, Khaled Mohamed El-Bayoumi1 

...ples were tested for NDV identification. NDV replication and growth was detected by embryo mortality after inoculation of all samples in one passage in embryonated chicken eggs and further testing by haemagglutination test. Whereas, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers to amplify 1681 base pair (bp) of the whole NDV F-gene was carried out to confirm the presence of NDV and then sequenced. Our results demonstrated that...

Aly M. Ghetas1*, Dalia M. Sedeek1, Hanaa S. Fedawy1, M.A. Bosila1, Hoda M. Mekky1, Kh. M. Elbayoumi1, 3, Mohamed M. Amer2 

.... terreus (1). Molecular identification of 5 representative Aspergillus isolates indicated A. fumigatus (2), A. flavus (2), and A. niger (1) were also performed. We recommended further studies to identify the intestinal fungi of chickens in large scale and different ages which help to understand their role.

Keywords | Aspergillus, Chickens, fungi, immunosuppression, molecular identification, Histopathology.  

Yao Zou, Shien Ren, Miao Xu, Nannan Liang, Xuxin Zhang, Chongxuan Han and Xiaoning Nan

...o the classification and identification of zokors using morphology.


Maid Zaman1*, Imtiaz Ali Khan1, Amjad Usman1 and Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi2

...hrough NIFA-Termaps) and identification, all districts had equal species number (05) but different type of species from the genera Heterotermes (02), Odontotermes (04) and Angulitermes (01). Genus Odontoteremes is more strengthened (57%) in number of species followed by genus Heterotermes (29%) and genus Angulitermes (14%). In district Buner, wood and Pinus were mostly attacked by the various species. Similarly, in district Haripur, wood was most attacked foll...
Hadia Gul1, Abdul Haleem Shah1, Ricardo Harripaul2, Anna Mikhailov2, Ejaz Ullah Khan3, Wasim Shah3, Nisar Ahmad3, John B Vincent2,4 and Muzammil Ahmad Khan3*
...sequencing (for mutation identification) and Sanger sequencing (for variant segregation). Homozygosity analysis revealed a 1.2 Mb HBD region on chromosome 15 between markers rs4778147 to rs8036234 (chr15:27752745-28962131bp), which harbors the previously reported OCA2 gene. The subsequent whole exome sequencing identified a novel splice site defect at spice donor site, wherein G was replaced by T at genomic position 28171268 (NM_000275.2:c.2079+5G>T) within...

Hams M.A. Mohamed1, Mona A. El-Zamkan2* 

...species. The preliminary identification was confirmed by using VITEK®2 system which revealed the presence of four isolates of S. thoraltensis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the obtained isolates was detected phenotypically and genotypically, in addition to the ability of these isolates to produce biofilm and protease enzyme. All the isolates displayed resistance to penicillin and oxacillin, while, two isolates were resistant to vancomycin and erythro...

Mohammed H. Galhoum1, Hamza M. Eed2, Essam S. Soliman1* 

...hemical, and serological identifications versus molecular detection. A prospective study was designed to last for six months from March 2021 to the end of August 2021. A total number of 126 chicken samples (100 samples from five broiler chicken farms and 26 samples from two slaughterhouses) were collected from the Ismailia governorate. Each sample was composed of liver, intestine, and breast and thigh muscles. The study revealed a total prevalence of 35.7% (45...

Imtiaz Ali Shah1*, Maleeha Anwar1, Rafiullah2, Inamullah Wazir1, Muhammad Hasnain Riaz1, Abdur Raziq1, Muhammad Ijaz Ali1, Faizul Hassan1, Khalid Khan3, Yasin Ahmad4, Irshad Ahmad5, Muhammad Ibrahim Rashid5, Muhammad Tariq Zeb1* 

Shahid Sherzada1,2*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1 and Masroor Ellahi Babar2

...n mitochondrial DNA. The identification of sequenced samples was done by NCBI (98-99%) and BOLD (99%) databases. The sequence data analysis represented 15 variable polymorphic sites and 4 haplotypes. Mean haplotypes and nucleotide diversity was 0.42 and 0.0018, respectively. The mean intraspecific and intragenric K2P genetic distances were 0.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Rate of transitional and transversional substitution was 16.68% and 4.16%, respectively. The ...

Hazel Tamakan* and Huban Gocmen

...lture methods, automated identification system and PCR-RFLP. This is the first study to research the presence of MRSP in cats and dogs in Cyprus. The PCR-RFLP method based on the pta gene was confirmed to S. pseudintermedius. Methicillin resistance results were revealed with VITEK 2 and mecA gene detection was performed by PCR. A total of 100 samples including 50 cats and 50 dogs were examined from 6 veterinary clinics. S. pseudintermedius (4%) and S. aureus (...

Mohamed Saeed M. Hassan¹, Hitham Abdel-Saeed1*, Kawkab Abd El Aziz Ahmed2, Ossama Mohamed Abdou1 

...ecords. Etiopathological identification of canine anemia in the light of hematobiochemical status is helpful for further investigations and therapeutic protocol decisions.

Keywords | Anemia, Dogs, Etiopathologies, Hematology, Biochemistry. 


Nora Faten Afifah Mohamad1, Hassan Haji Mohd Daud1, Ruhil Hayati Hamdan2, Sharifah Raina Manaf3, Ain Auzureen Mat Zin2, Nik Nur Fazlina Nik Mohd Fauzi2

Aly M. Ghetas1*, Dalia M. Sedeek1, Hanaa S. Fedawy1, M.A. Bosila1, Asmaa M. Maatouq1, Hoda M. Mekky1, Kh. M. Elbayoumi1,2, Mohamed M. Amer3

Asli Salcioglu

...his study, the molecular identification of the three Mediterranean Spicara species was investigated by using the 16S rRNA gene for confirmation of the taxonomic status and also identify incorrectly classified sequences on the GenBank database. The results of the haplotype network and phylogenetic trees show three distinct Spicara haplotypes/haplogroups, corresponding to three different species. Additionally, the number of mutations and high values of sequence ...

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Usman1,*, Abdul Jabbar1, Saba Usman3, Ahsan Anjum3, Muhammad Husnain1, Nadeem Raza1 and Anwar-ul-Haq4

Waqar Khan1, Muhammad Atif Khan1, Waseem Abbas1, Muhammad Shakeel1, Hammad Uddin2 and Bismillah Shah1*

...logical descriptions, an identification key, and photographs are given. Specimens of all examined materials are deposited at the department of Entomology, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.


Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Vol. 38, Iss. 1, Pages 01-387


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